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SOCSCI 

DA BB0.LS B77 
Brawn ? Peter ? Rev . , of 
His tor ieai sketches of 
par i sh of Camhusnet hav 



THE LIBRARY 
UNIVERSITY Of GUELPH 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 



BY THE 

REV. PETER BROWN, 



S&fejfafo : 
DAVID JOHNSTON, MAIN STREET. 

EDINBURGH : W. OLIPHANT AND CO. 
GLASGOW : D. ROBERTSON. 

1859. 



W5 3> 



PRINTED BY 

DAVID JOHNSTON, 

W1SHAW. 



THE EIGHT HONOURABLE 

LORD BELHAVEN AND HAMILTON, 
LADY SETON-STEUART, 

OP ALLANTON AND TOUCH, 

JAMES SINCLAIR-LOCKHART, ESQUIRE 

OP CASTLEHILL, 
AND 

HENRY HOULDSWORTH, ESQUIRE 

OF COLTNESS, 

THE REPRESENTATIVES 

OP 

THE PRINCIPAL ESTATES 

IN THE 
PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN, 

OP 

"historical sketches" 

IS, 

WITH KIND PERMISSION, RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED, 

BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE. 



The u Wishaw Mechanics' Institute " was brought into 
existence in the year 1852. The author of this volume 
lent his aid to the "Institute" from the commencement ; 
and has annually — except when the state of his health 
forbade him — given one or more lectures on topics connected 
with popular science, natural and national history, popular 
superstitions, and antiquarian research. Several of the 
Directors being aware that he had collected a considerable 
amount of information in connexion with the Parish of Cam- 
busnethan, embracing the period between the Restoration of 
Charles II. and the Revolution, pressed him to throw this 
information into regular shape, and embody it into a lecture, 
to be given during the following session. After having 
agreed to do this, he became convinced that, as the topic 
was one of local interest, he might advantageously travel 
beyond the limits of the twenty- eight years of Prelatic per- 
secution, and especially backward over parochial incidents 
of an older date. The filling up of this more enlarged sketch 
occupied an occasional hour of literary recreation ; and 

A 



VI PREFACE. 

when his researches into the matters which he had selected 
had approached something like completeness, he found it 
necessary to throw them into the form of two lectures — one 
on the Antiquities of the Parish, the other on the Share 
which the Parish had in the Sufferings of the Persecuting 
Period. 

Immediately on the delivery of these lectures, on the 4th 
and 11th of February last, a very general desire for their 
publication was expressed. "The pressure from without" 
having been so urgent, the author assented to their being 
sent to the press. In doing so, he saw it to be proper not 
only to enlarge on some topics partially touched on in the 
lectures when delivered, but to introduce a considerable 
amount of information, on a variety of matters, which were 
not so much as alluded to. He is persuaded that in having 
done so, the volume has been rendered all the more accept- 
able, to those who feel an interest in the topics discussed in 
it. These prefatory statements will serve not only to 
explain the occasion of publishing this volume, but account 
for the style of the lecture room, which the author in several 
passages has thought fit to retain. 

It may be satisfactory to those who feel an interest in 
the subject of this volume, to be able to form some idea of 
the extent of the author's researches, the sources from which 



PREFACE. Vll 

his information has been derived, and the anxiety which he 
had to combine fulness with variety of statement, within 
the narrowest compass. He therefore subjoins the following 
list of the authorities which he found it necessary carefully 
to consult: — 

Kegistrum Episcopatus Glasguensis. 

The Cartularies of the Abbey of Aberbrothwick. 

The Cartularies of the Abbey of Kelso. 

Bede's Ecclesiastical History. 

Usher's Antiquities of the British Churches. 

D'Aubigne's History of the Reformation in England. 

Burnet's History of his own Times. 

Commissary Records of Glasgow. 

Records of the Lords of the Privy Council. 

Sommerville's " Memorie of the Sommervilles." 

Hamilton's Description of the Sheriffdom of Lanarkshire. 

Douglas' Peerage and Baronage of Scotland. 

Burke's Peerage. 

Nisbet's Heraldry. 

Crawford's Peerage. 

Crawford's Genealogical History of the Royal House of 
Stewart. 

Balfour's Annals of Scotland. 

Buchanan's History of Scotland. 

Tytler's History of Scotland. 

Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland. 



Vlll PREFACE. 

Wodrow's Church History. 

Cook's History of the Reformation in Scotland. 

Carlyle's Cromwell. 

Old Mortality. 

Simpson's Traditions of the Covenanters. 

Report of Commissioners on Religious Instruction. 

Scott's Notices of the Associate Congregation of Cam- 

busnethan. 
Frazer's Life of Ralph Erskine. 
M'Crie's Vindication of the Covenanters. 
Lord Macaulay's History of England. 
Butler's Lives of the Saints. 
Stewart's Account of the Royal Stewarts. 
The Haddington Collection of Royal Charters. 
The Coltness Collection of Papers. 

In the preparation of the lectures, and especially of this 
volume, the author was laid under obligations to the Right 
Honourable Lord Belhaven, Lady Seton-Steuart of Allanton 
and Touch, Sir Henry Seton-Steuart, Baronet, of Allanton 
and Touch, and Henry Houldsworth, Esquire of Coltness, 
for the valuable information with which they have favoured 
him, either bearing on their ancestry or their respective 
estates. In availing himself of this opportunity of placing 
on record an expression of his gratitude for the facilities 
which they afforded him, he takes occasion also to express 



PREFACE. IX 

his gratitude for the kindness shewn him by the Rev. James 
S. Johnson, of Cambuslang, Rev. Dr. Goold, of Edinburgh, 
Rev. John Kay, Airdrie, Rev. J. W. M'Meekan, Lesma- 
hagow, Rev. R. T. Martin, Wishaw, and a number of friends 
in Wishaw and vicinity, who, in a variety of ways, lent 
their aid in contributing facts and anecdotes, which have 
been interwoven into the narrative. 

After the first lecture had been delivered, a regret was 
expressed, that it did not contain any allusion to the Origin 
or Early History of the Town of Wishaw. The explanation 
is a simple one : the Town of Wishaw, recently erected 
into a Burgh, has nothing of Antiquarianism about it. It 
has sprung up, almost as rapidly as one of the numerous 
towns in the American and Australian continents. The 
author has met with many persons who had a distinct 
recollection when the oldest of the present houses were 
erected. An old cottage in Main Street, marked No. 66, 
situated between Wishaw Parish Church and the Royal 
Hotel, and another cottage situated on the south side of the 
same street, and marked No. 119, have, on the lintels of 
their doors, the date 1777, and are considered as being the 
oldest existing houses in the town. They will speedily 
disappear before the spirit of re-building, which has recently 
taken possession of proprietors, and which has been so 
largely encouraged. 



X PREFACE. 

The north turnpike road from Glasgow to Lanark passes 
through the centre of Wishaw, for about three-quarters of 
a mile, and forms its principal street. From the middle of 
last century till near the close of it, the cottages on this line 
of road were very few, and were chiefly situated on that 
part of the street now occupied by the houses marked No. 223 
to No. 237. The principal group of houses was clustered 
around the farm onstead of Fimmington. They have en- 
tirely disappeared, and the site of this onstead — a few yards 
below the lower of the two ponds which supply the distil- 
lery — is marked by two very aged ash trees. " The lands 
of Fimmington" are the feudal designation in the title- 
deeds of houses erected on the portion of the Burgh which 
belongs to the Wishaw estate. About the year 1790, the 
prosperity of the cotton manufactures in the west of Scot- 
land induced a number of persons to take off feus along the 
line of the public road, which the superior encouraged by 
granting them on favourable terms. The older feus are at 
the rate of forty shillings sterling per acre. Those recently 
granted in the Burgh are at the rate of £14. per acre. 

The late Dr. Lockhart of Blackfriars Parish, Glasgow, 
was minister of Cambusnethan in the year 1794, and drew 
up the first Statistical Account, in the Collection published 
by Sir John Sinclair. In that account he mentions, that 
the line of a new village was then being marked out, with- 



PREFACE. XI 

out intimating that any name had been assigned to it. It 
was originally called the New Town of Cambusnethan, 
afterwards the New Town of Wishaw, then Wishawtown, 
and now it is the Burgh of Wishaw, — having been so 
constituted by the provisions of the Act of Parliament, on 
the 4th September, 1855. 

The following Statistics may be deemed interesting : — In 
the year 1755, the population of Cambusnethan was 1,419. 
In 1781, the population was 1,562. In 1791, it was 1,684. 
In the year 1794, the whole population in all the villages in 
the Parish only amounted to 409. In the year 1801, the 
population was 1,972. In the year 1831, it was 3,824. In 
the year 1841, it was 5,796. In the year 1851, it was 
8,621. In that year the population of Wishaw was 3,271. 
Since that date, the population of Cambusnethan Parish, 
and of Wishaw, has advanced at a more rapid rate than 
during the same number of years at any former period. The 
population at the present date cannot be much under 17,000. 

The number of deaths in the Parish of Cambusnethan in 
the year 1781, was only 12. In the year 1791, it was 30. 
The number of births registered in the year 1858 was 671, 
and of deaths, 231. 

In the year 1781, the sum of £66. sterling was deemed 



Xll PREFACE. 

adequate to the maintenance of the poor. In that year the 
Associate Congregation of Daviesdykes contributed to this 
sum to the amount of £25. 5. 0. ; and it does not appear 
the poor made any complaint. In the year 1817, the sum 
raised for the maintenance of the poor, from assessment on 
lands and heritages, mortcloth fees, and church-door collec- 
tions, was £85. 2. 0^., and the expenditure was £88. 19. 6. 
In the year 1844, the income, from assessments, voluntary 
subscriptions, mortcloth and proclamation fees, was £245. 
14. 1J., and the expenditure was £264. 11. 0. In the year 
1858, the assessment amounted to £1,935. 15. 0., and the 
expenditure to £1,835. 17. 0. In this year, the number of 
individuals receiving regular parochial relief was 347, and 
those obtaining occasional relief, 152, — in all, 499. 

In the year 1824, there was no public conveyance from 
Wishaw, nor could one be obtained on hire nearer than 
Hamilton. So late as the year 1840, a one-horse coach, 
which, from the name of the proprietor, was called " Watt's 
noddy," was run three times a week to Glasgow, and occu- 
pying three and a half hours on a journey of fourteen miles. 
The Caledonian railway has a station at Wishaw, from 
which, at present, any person may travel north or south 
eight times a day ; and stylish vehicles can be had on hire, 
at five of the principal hotels. Twenty-five years ago, it 
was difficult to obtain a little writing paper, of a common 



PREFACE. Xlll 

description, at a few of the grocers' shops. Now, there are 
several booksellers' shops in the Burgh ; and, perhaps, one 
of the most striking indications of modern progress is, that 
this volume has been brought out at the local press. Pre- 
vious to the year 1836, an old man, engaged by the inhabi- 
tants, carried their letters to and from Hamilton, allowing 
him one penny for each letter or newspaper. Frequently 
he had not more than half-a-dozen daily. In the above- 
mentioned year, when a post-office was established in 
Wishaw, the letters seldom exceeded a dozen, or a score, 
daily. At the present date, the letters and papers which 
pass through the post-office, average seven thousand weekly, 
and there are three deliveries daily. There are three banks ; 
and the shops are fitted, and furnished, in a style which 
rival, for taste and supplies, anything to be met with in 
much larger towns. 

It has been mentioned that Wishaw was constituted a 
Burgh in the year 1855. The rental of the Burgh 

In 1855, was £5,000 ; 

11 1856, " 5,804 11 6 ; 

" 1857, " 6,634 12 0; 

" 1858, " 8,740 0: 
at which rate of progression, the rental is likely to double 
itself in the short period of five years. 



XIV PREFACE. 

The author, having restricted himself, has left many 
topics of local interest untouched. There are ample mate- 
rials to employ other pens, in the geology of Cambusnethan 
— its agricultural and mineral resources — its literary, educa- 
tional, and benevolent institutions — and in the social and 
moral condition of the miners, and labourers at its public 
works, who have, of late years, so rapidly increased the 
population. He commits the volume to the intelligence and 
candour of the inhabitants of the Parish, in the confidence 
that his efforts to arrange, and place on record, so many 
historical facts of local interest, will by them be duly ap- 
preciated. 

P. B. 

United Presbyterian Manse, 
Wishaw, June, 1859. 



CONTENTS. 



Antiquities of the Parish op Cambusnethan, 
Introductory Remarks , 

Earliest Historical Reference to the Parish . 
Inquest by Prince David in the Twelfth Century 
Connexion with the Abbey of Kelso 
William Finnemund, and Rudolph de Cler . 
Cambusnethan connected with Glasgow Cathedral 
The Titulars and Teinds of the Parish . 
Lands belonging to the Abbey of Aberbrothwick 
Etymology of " Cambusnethan " . . 

Nethan, a Pictish King 

Line of the Roman Road in the Parish . 

The Tumulus at Garrion 

Garrion Tower and its Episcopal Occupants . 
Bishops Fairfowl, Paterson, and Leighton 
•« The Auld Toun o' Col Ness " 
Wincie Well ...... 

The First Church at Cambusnethan 
Disputes about the Church Lands . 
Ruins and Remains of the Original Church 
The Curates previous to the Reformation 
Abolition of Popery 
The first "Readers " in Cambusnethan 
The Ministers after the Reformation 

The Old Bell 

The Choir of the Old Church . 

Disputes between Sommerville and Steuart of Allanton 

Removal of the Church to Greenhead 



PAGE. 

1 

2 

3 

5 

ib. 

6 

ib. 

7 

8 

9 

11 

12 

13 

15 

18 

19 

ib. 

20 

21 

ib. 

22 

24 

ib. 

25 

26 

28 

30 



XVI 



CONTENTS. 



Dilapidation of the Old Church .... 
Disputes about Seats in the New Church 
Notices of the Ministers in Greenhead Church 
Origin of the Associate Congregation of Cambusnethan 
Ralph and Ebenezer Erskine at Daviesdykes 

Notices of the first Elders 

Notices of the Ministers at Daviesdykes 

The Revolution settlement unsatisfactory 

Notices of Mr M'Millan and ' The Reformed Presbytery 

The Reformed Presbyterian Congregation in Wishaw 

Mr. Mason and his Writings . 

Mr. Mason's Successors .... 

Origin of the Relief Congregation in Wishaw 

The first Managers 

The Building of the Church 

Steps towards having an Ordained Minister 

Mr. M'Intyre's Ministry .... 

The first Session 

Mr. Brown's Ministry .... 
Other Congregations recently formed 
Oldest Houses in the Parish 

The Steuarts op Allanton. 
Origin of the name " Steward " 
The Grand Stewards of Scotland 
Sir John Steuart of Bonkyll 
Ancestry of the Allanton Family 
Allan Steuart, and his Descendants 
Notices of the Ancestry of Lady Seton-Steuart 

The Steuarts of Coltness. 
A Branch of the Allanton Family . 
The Founder of the Coltness Family : 
Anecdotes of his Descendants 
The Arbour at Coltness House 

History op the Cam'nethan Estate. 
Owners of the Estate in the Twelfth Century 
Sir Robert Baird found guilty of Treason 

Sir John Edmonston 

The first Baron Sommerville of Cam'nethan . 
The Extent of the Estate 



CONTENTS. 



XV11 



The Estate Forfeited, and afterwards Restored 

The gradual Disponing of portions of it . 

Sommerville of Drum becomes Proprietor 

Sold to Sir John Harper, Sheriff-Depute 

Sold to Lockhart of Castlehill . 

Ancestry of Lockhart of Castlehill . 

Sir James Douglas and the Heart of Bruce 

Sir Simon Locard of Lee 

Origin of the name "Lockhart" 
Memoir of the Belhaven Peerage. 

Viscount Belhaven 

Ancestry of the first Lord Belhaven 

Origin of the Armorial bearings 

Notices of the first Lord Belhaven . 

Notices of the second Lord Belhaven 

Notices of his Successors in the Peerage . 

The Barncleuth Branch failed . 

The Claim to the Peerage disputed 

The Claim decided in favour of the Wishaw Family 
The Share which the Parish op Cambusnethan had 
in the Troubles and Sufferings of the Perse- 
cuting Period. 

Introductory Remarks 

Abolition of Popery 

Faithlessness of James VI. to his pledges 

Charles I . resolved on introducing Prelacy into Scotland 

Awakening at the Kirk of Shotts 

Cambusnethan a Sharer in this Revival .... 

Mr. Livingstone and Charles II. 

The Earlier Martyrs after the Restoration 

Mr. James Sharp betrays the Church of Scotland . 

The Minister of Cambusnethan made a Bishop 

Archbishop Leighton and Sir John Harper . 

The Act of Indulgence 

The Indulged Minister at Cambusnethan 

Steuart of Allanton and others Fined .... 

Mr. Vilant Banished 

Mr. Hugh M'Kail's Sermon 

His Torture and Martyrdom 



PAGE. 

82 
ib. 
83 
84 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
85 
ib. 

87 



ib. 

92 
95 
96 
ib. 

97 



101 
102 
103 
104 
ib. 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 



XV111 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

"Ephraim M 'Briar" of Old Mortality .... 119 

Battle of Drumclog 121 

Paterson of Carbarns shot in Glasgow . . . .122 
Sufferings of James Gourlay of Overtown . . .123 
Sufferings of Alexander and James Gray of Cam'nethan 

Mains. , 125 

Robert and William Paterson of Kirkhill shot . . 127 

Barbarities at Kirkhill 129 

Cases of James Bryce, Alexander Smith, James Petti- 
grew, Robert Russel, James Forrest, Robert Gourlay, 
Margaret Forrest, Gavin Muirhead, Gavin Laurie, 
John Miller, David Russel, Archibald Prentice, John 
Cleland, John Smith, Robert Steel, William Dalziel, 
George Russel, John Marshall, John Torrance, sever- 
al persons in Overtown, and Thomas Paton . 130-133 
Sufferings and Losses endured by Sir James Steuart of 

Coltness . 134= 

The Case of Walter Steuart of Coltness .... 136 

James Steuart and his Writings ..... ib. 

Thomas Steuart obliged to fly to Holland . . . 137 

David Steuart of Coltness sentenced to be executed . 140 

Arthur Inglis of Netherton ; 141 

Inscription on his Tomb-stone 142 

The Trees at Stockelton-dyke 143 

Our Old Church-yard 144 

Notices of Mr. Donald Cargill 143 

Mr. Cargill, at Darngavel and Darmeid , 146 

His escape from Watersaugh 147 

Darmeid and the " Sanquhar Declaration . . ib. 

Mr. Renwick's First Sermon at Darmeid . . . 149 

Concluding Reflections 151 

M'Crie's Vindication of the Covenanters . . . 154 

Eulogy by Lord Macaulay 156 



ANTIQUITIES 



PAEISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 



^ntirjui&g of % Iparisfj. 

The question has been often put — and certainly with great 
propriety — "who would remain unacquainted with the his- 
tory of his own country ?" Take Scotland as an illustration 
— a country which has produced so many heroic, talented, 
and worthy men — a country, whose annals are crowded 
with the record of incidents, the bare recital of which 
continues to touch, and awakeu, the finer sympathies of out- 
nature — a country, whose long and arduous struggle for 
independence was crowned with victory. The Scotchman, 
then, who had within his reach the documents in which 
these incidents are recorded, and yet did not possess them, 
or remained ignorant of them, would betray not merely the 
low state of his literature, but the low state of his patriot- 
ism. The question with which I set out this evening is, 
" who would remain unacquainted with the history of his own 
Parish f n The parishioners of Cambusnethan who are still 

B 



2 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

11 a acquainted with parochial incidents, historically considered, 
have their apology. The materials, which are requisite to 
the construction of anything like historical detail, are not 
generally accessible — they have hitherto existed in a very 
scattered condition — they require a considerable amount of 
patient research, and no small amount of time to arrange 
them, and bring them into anything like shape. If, then, I 
have had the ambition to attempt the task, I trust it will 
be deemed allowable, when it is balanced against the desire 
which I have all along felt, and the humble efforts which I 
have all along made, to maintain the " Wishaw Mechanics' 
Institute" in a tone of healthfulness, by having, latterly, 
selected a subject, which, whatever it may be worth, has at 
least a local interest to recommend it. 

This lecture is to be occupied with details, which properly 
belong to the Antiquities of the parish of Cambusnethan. 

My researches in this direction, so far as they have as yet 
gone, have been interesting, and satisfactory. I cannot, as 
yet, go farther back than the commencement of the eighth 
century ; my earliest fact being derived from the Ecclesias- 
tical Annals of " the Venerable Bede." Subsequent to this 
date, and during what are called " the Middle Ages," there 
is occasionally much obscurity in our national records. In 
consequence of frequent feuds among the nobles, large dis- 
tricts of the country passed from hand to hand, so as, 
ultimately, to render it no easy matter to say to what 
division of the country it belonged, or who was the rightful 
claimant. Even the great boundary line, between England 
and Scotland, was not accurately defined. Northumberland 



PARISH OP CAMBUSNETHAN. 6 

was then a distinct kingdom, extending so far north as the 
Frith of Forth. It is generally understood that Edinburgh 
had its name from Edwin, a Northumbrian Prince. About 
the middle of the tenth century, Cumberland and West- 
moreland were made over to the Scottish monarchy, and 
were, during several reigns, regarded as part of the Scottish 
realm. It is worth mentioning, as an illustration of the 
divided state of the country, that, at the period referred to, 
Clydesdale could scarcely be said to belong to either of the 
contending parties. It was not till the reign of Kenneth III. 
that Clydesdale was incorporated with the then Scottish 
kingdom ; and, not till the reign of Malcolm II. that the 
Lothians and the Southern counties, were identified with 
the Scottish crown. These brief notices will sufficiently 
indicate, how very difficult it must at one time have been, 
to define what properly belonged to the crown, or to the 
barons, or to the church. 

These preliminary observations bring me to a definite 
period. At the commencement of the twelfth century, or 
about the year 1116, David, Prince of Cumbria, instituted 
an Inquest, having for its primary object to ascertain from 
the testimony of the oldest and wisest persons in Cumbria, 
what lands, and churches, belonged to the Diocese of Glas- 
gow. Clydesdale was then a portion of Cumbria. There 
is afac simile of the document embodying the result of this 
Inquest, in the " Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis," re- 
cently published by the Maitland Club. It contains a 
minute list of the lands and churches which were understood 
to belong to the bishopric. Several names in this list have 
puzzled Antiquarians, as they have had to contend with 



4 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

mistaken readings, in twice -copied transcripts. A name, 
almost at the top of the list, has particularly engaged my 
attention. Owing to the minuteness of the character of 
the penmanship, I felt a difficulty at first, whether to read 
it u Camcachethyn," or " Camnachethyn ;" but, on compar- 
ing the style of the characters in other parts of the document, 
have been led to prefer the former of these readings. If 
this, in the twelfth century, wa3 intended to represent the 
district in Clydesdale which has long borne the name of 
" Cambusnethan" the discrepancy in the orthography is not 
greater than in other cases, about which no dispute now 
exists. If a person, unacquainted with the sources of our 
national monastic literature, were asked to point out the 
locality of the Abbey of " Passeleth" he might be some 
time in guessing whether this was the original name for 
Paisley. If a person residing in Cambusnethan were told 
that, in the Cartularies of the Abbey of Aberbrothic, a large 
central district in the parish is written u Allcathmor," he 
might be at some loss to explain how this designation came 
to be corrupted into the modern, but less euphonious word, 
" Aughtermuir." Taking the circumstances, above narrated, 
into consideration, there are reasons for concluding that we 
must identify the place mentioned in the " Inquest" of Prince 
David with the lands of Cambusnethan parish. The proof 
may be considered as nearly complete, when we take into 
account that, in a charter granted by the Abbot of Kelso, 
to Walter, Bishop of Glasgow, in the year 1232, Cambus- 
nethan is mentioned as being within the limits of the Glasgow 
diocese. 

The Abbey of Kelso, one of the most magnificent of our 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNBTHAN. O 

monastic structures, was reared and endowed by the taste 
and piety of David I. The Abbey was very wealthy ; 
deriving its revenues from lands in thirty-four parishes. 
As an acknowledgement of royal liberality, David was 
canonized, and is still venerated as a saint, at the expense 
of a joke, which is understood to have originated with 
James VI., that David had been "a sair saunt to the croun." 
During the twelfth century, William Finnemund, a Norman 
Baron, was lord of the manor of Cambasnethan, and being 
a devoted son of the church, he bequeathed to the Abbey 
the titles, and other rights over the soil, pertaining to him. 
These grants appear to have been subsequently confirmed 
by Malcolm IV. and William the Lion. Finnemund was 
succeeded in the manor by Rudolph de Cler, who confirmed 
the titular at Kelso in the privileges which his predecessor 
had bestowed upon him, and even added to them. On 
condition of being allowed to have a private chapel in the 
manor-house, dedicated to Saint Michael, he gave the monks 
a right to grind their corn at Garrion mill, and to the tithe 
of the multure of said mill. The last notice of Cambus- 
nethan in the Kelso Cartulary is met with in a list of 
churches over which the Abbot had control, and to each of 
which certain privileges were granted by Pope Innocent IT. 
In the thirteenth century, the church of Cambusnethan, with 
its tithes and other ecclesiastical revenues, were transferred 
from the Abbey of Kelso to the Bishop of Glasgow. It was 
then constituted one of his mensal kirks, and continued to re- 
tain this character till the Reformation. The revenues from 
particular churches and church lands were appropriated to 
purely ecclesiastical purposes, but, in every diocese the 
revenues of a few were expressly granted for the Bishop's, 



G HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

personal expenses, and especially the maintenance of his 
table. They were, on this latter account, called " mensal 
kirks." Cambusnethan was of this class. At the Reforma- 
tion, Sir James Hamilton had a lease of the parsonage tithes 
of this parish from the Archbishop of Glasgow, for a small 
rent. After the Reformation, when the temporalities of 
the church came to be distributed among laymen, the Duke 
of Lennox appears to have obtained a large share of the 
revenues from church lands in Cambusnethan. In the year 
1696, there was a special grant of these revenues, by an 
Act of Parliament, to Anne, Duchess of Hamilton, on con- 
dition of her paying the yearly stipend of the minister, as 
then modified, and one penny Scots to the crown. The 
patronage, however, was some time after this bestowed on 
the proprietor of the manor of Cambusuethan. At the 
Revolution, the Duke of Hamilton became titular of the 
teinds of this parish ; the " titular" having a title merely to 
the teinds of a parish, without possession, or enjoyment of 
them. The teinds are in this parish distributed among the 
heritors, according to the valued rent of their respective 
heritages, to be by them appropriated to the payment of 
stipend, and maintenance of the ecclesiastical buildings. 
According to the Report of the Commissioners of Religious 
Instruction in Scotland, published in 1838, the teinds of 
Cambusnethan are set down annually at £490. 19, 3., and 
the amount of unexhausted teind at £212. 4. 2. 

While on the subject of church lands and revenues in 
this parish, it is proper to notice that, between four and 
five hundred years ago, the central portion of it belonged to 
the rich lordship and Abbacy of Aberbrothic. The district 



PARISH OF CAMBQSNETHAN. i 

seem3 to have been originally called MacMorrens Muir> but 
in the fourteenth century it was called Allcathmuir, for a 
reason which will be fully explained in the notices of the 
Steuarts of Allanton. In the year 1432, when an Inquest 
had been made into the lands of Allcathmuir, Thomas Hay, 
Baron of Yester, was taken bound to pay to the Abbey 
forty merks annually, and half a stone of wax on the eve 
of the feast of John the Baptist. This half-stone of wax 
must doubtless have been to aid in keeping up a sufficient 
supply of candles for the religious services of the Abbey, 
and serves to shew, that, at the period referred to, the 
district must have been as famous for the rearing of bees as 
it has latterly been, when wax was fixed on as the com- 
modity which could be most easily furnished. In the clause 
of the title-deeds of the United Presbyterian Church at 
Bonkle, in which the situation and boundaries of their pro- 
perty are specified, it is described as being u at the bottom of 
North Brownhill park, within the Barony of Allcathmuir," 
thus evincing, that upwards of four hundred years ago their 
property was church lands, paying its quota annually of the 
half-stone of wax to the Abbey of Aberbrothic. In the 
year 1476, letters were issued by the 'Abbot, appointing 
John Hamilton, of Braidhirst, his justiciary bailie over the 
lands of Allcathmuir ; and on the 10th February, 1528, a 
precept of sasine was granted in favour of John, Lord Hay, 
of Yester, over the lands of Allcathmuir. The Lords of 
Yester were the ancestors of the Marquis of Tweeddale, and 
by the Tweeddale family Allcathmuir was feued out among 
sundry heritors, the principal among whom was Steuart of 
Allanton. The Abbey of Aberbrothic was probably as rich 
as that of Kelso, as it derived revenues from lands in thirty- 



8 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

rive parishes. Wherever they had lands they had chapels. 
In Allcathmuir, there was the " chapel of Beuskiag," and 
although the ruins of it have some time ago disappeared, 
yet the district continues to be distinguished by the appella- 
tion of "the Chapel." 

An inquiry into the etymology of Cambusnetkan is rather 
interesting. The original names of all places in Scotland 
are Celtic, and are almost invariably descriptive of peculiar- 
ities in the external character, or appearance of the locality. 
The parish derives its name from the manor of Cambus- 
nethan, which, at an early period, included the whole district 
which now parochially passes under this name; and the 
manor being at the western extremity, where the Clyde 
curves round the fertile valley land, this circumstance must 
have given the name to the locality which it has so long 
borne. The Celtic word u cam " expresses whatever has 
a bend or twist in it. The names of two of our Highland 
clans — Cameron and Campbell — are significant. Cameron 
signifies "the bent, or hooked nose," and Campbell, " the 
crooked, or wry mouth ;" and there can be no doubt that 
the founder of the Cameron family must have been remark- 
able for the shape of his nose, and the founder of the 
Campbell family must have been recognised by nothing so 
much as a peculiarity in the figure of his mouth. The Celtic 
word "cainbus" — so common a prefix to the names of 
places in Scotland — describes an extent of level or valley 
ground, around which a river, or stream, sweeps in its 
course. Cambusmore, signifies "the large bend," and is 
the name of an estate around which the Teith makes one of 
its largest curves. Cambuskenneth, gives a name to a 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 9 

ruined Abbey, on a neck of land around which the Forth 
has placed one of her picturesque links. Cambuslang, is 
u the long bend," and is the name of a parish in the lower- 
ward of Lanarkshire, around which the Clyde takes one of 
her long and graceful sweeps. Cambusnethan signifies 
" Nethan's curve," or bend. Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, 
who wrote on the Antiquities of the British Churches, up- 
wards of two centuries ago, makes reference to Nethan, as 
a saint, eminent alike for learning and piety. He refers to 
the Venerable Bede as his authority. From the testimony 
of Bede it would appear that Nethan, like David I., was a 
royal saint, being the Pictish Monarch towards the com- 
mencement of the eighth century, having his royal residence 
at Abernethy, the ancient form of which name was 4t Aber- 
nethyn." The compiler of the first Statistical Account of 
the parish of Abernethy, mentions, that the name which the 
Highlanders were accustomed to give to the locality was 
14 Obair^ or " Abair Nadchtain* which signifies " the work 
of Neathan" or "Nectam, ,> and this Celtic mode of pro- 
nouncing the name, may serve to account for the remarkable 
circular tower, the most striking memorial of the olden time, 
in the district around Abernethy. Nectanus, or Nethanus, 
the Pictish King, contributed in no small degree to counten- 
ance the intrigues of Popery in Scotland, at the commence- 
ment of the eighth century. Previous to that period, the 
emissaries of Rome had failed in bringing the church in 
Scotland under the Papal yoke, but, by flattering the vanity 
of Nethan that the Roman ceremonials accorded with the 
pomp of royalty, they prevailed. As yet, in Scotland, the 
sanctuaries were rude and simple in the materials of which 
they were constructed. Nethan was induced to send to 



10 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

Ceolfrid, Abbot of Jarrow, on the Tyne, to favour him with 
a few architects to build a church after the Roman pattern. 
The request was granted. Nethan felt that he now had 
influence in the church, and resolved to use it. He was the 
first to introduce into Scotland the observance of Easter, and 
the circular tonsure on the heads of the clergy. D'Aubigne 
refers to this enslavement of the Scottish church in the 
following terms of pointed irony — " A royal proclamation, 
and a few clips of the scissors, placed the Scotch, like a flock 
of sheep, beneath the crook of the shepherd of the Tiber/' 

At the commencement of the eight century, Clydesdale, 
at least the northern portion of it, belonged to the monarch 
of Abernethyn. The Clyde was probably the southern 
boundary of his kingdom. Without waiting to question 
either the learning or piety of the Pictish Nethan, we may, 
I think, safely compliment his good taste, when, in his 
peregrinations through his dominions, he selected for his 
occasional residence so warm and cozy a spot as the western 
extremity of our parish, and, having done so, perpetuated 
his name in this locality. The silvery Clyde — the theme of 
song and story — has many a lovely spot upon her banks, 
and, on the western banks of this parish, long, long ago, 
when few sounds were heard except the music of Nature — 
the song of the woods, the bleating of the lamb, and the 
murmur of the passing river— the royal Nethan occasionally 
sojourned ; little dreaming of the changes which agriculture, 
and engineering, and the enterprize of the human mind, 
freed from the fetters of Papal superstition, would one day 
accomplish in this lovely valley. 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 11 

The external remains of anything in the parish, laying 
claim to high antiquity, are not numerous, yet are worth 
noticing. A branch of the Roman road passed through the 
parish. This great highway issued from the forum at Rome, 
traversed Italy, pervaded all the Roman provinces, and was 
terminated only by the frontiers of the empire. When the 
Romans had possession of the southern portion of Scotland, 
they thought proper to arrest the incursions of the Caledon- 
ians by a wall, running from Borrowstounness — almost in 
the present line of the Forth and Clyde canal — to a point 
on the Clyde, a short w r ay above Dumbarton castle, at 
Dunglass, where the remains of a Roman fort are still vis- 
ible, crowned with an obelisk to the memory of the late 
Henry Bell, who constructed and sailed the first steamboat 
on the Clyde. A branch of the Roman road started at 
Dunglass, came upwards towards Glasgow, and entered this 
parish at a point between Shieldmuir and Meadowhead, 
passed Wishaw nearly mid-way between the town and the 
line of the Caledonian railway, and crossing Garrion-gill, 
passed through Carluke, onwards towards Carlisle. Those 
who constructed this road seem to have paid little attention 
to engineering difficulties. Natural obstacles and private 
property were alike disregarded ; and acting upon the 
mathematical axiom, that a straight line between two given 
points is the shortest, the Roman road generally pursued a 
straight course. From personal examination of remaining 
traces of it, durability was aimed at. The central part 
consisted of strata of gravel and cement, and the surface 
was paved with large stones, and near the principal towns 
with granite. At the point where the road crossed Garrion- 
gill, a branch struck off northward — passed a short way to 



12 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OP THE 






the west of Newmains — crossed the Calder at a hollow part 
almost mid-way between Murdoston house and the turnpike 
road to Stirling, and thence, ran on in a direct line to Castle- 
carey, where one of the principal Roman forts was, and 
there the road terminated. 

The only other memorial of Roman antiquity is the tumu- 
lus, near G-arrkm-bridge. On approaching Garrion-bridge, 
the attention will be arrested by a mound, on the edge of 
the public road, marked by a solitary oak tree. When this 
road was being constructed, several years ago, there were 
considerable quantities of stones around the base of the 
tumulus, which had apparently been collected, at different 
periods, from the surface of the neighbouring fields. They 
were deemed very suitable for road metal, and the process 
of removing them for this use was proceeded with, when 
stone coffins, and other antique memorials of a bygone age, 
appearing, it became obvious that the spot had been the 
burial-place of warriors and nobles, at a period which 
carried us far back into the antiquities of our country. 
These discoveries having come to the knowledge of the late 
Sir James Steuart of Coltness, on whose property the tumu- 
lus was, he very properly gave immediate orders that the 
opening in it should at once be filled up, and no further 
injury done to so very interesting a memorial of the olden 
time. 

In proximity to the tumulus, but a little way to the 
south, and near the margin of the river, stood the venerable 
tower of Garrion. Of late years this tower, and its antique 
appearance, have been greatly concealed by the modern 



PARISH OP OAMBUSNETHAN. 13 

buildings which have been erected around it. Previous to 
the repairs made on it, and the erection of a very tasteful 
mansion, the tower itself had nothing peculiar to distinguish 
it from the small baronial towers so very commonly met 
with in the south of Scotland ; many of which are fast fall- 
ing into ruins. It was in some respects a place of strength, 
as well as of residence. According to the uniform plan 
followed in the internal arrangements, the lower part was 
vaulted, and was most secure. The second division was 
one large apartment — serving the double purpose of a kit- 
chen and dining-hall. The upper division contained two or 
three small sleeping apartments, reached by a very narrow 
spiral stair. The date of its erection has not been ascer- 
tained. Two things, however, are certain, it is centuries 
old, and, in the days alike of Popery and Prelacy, was the 
favourite summer residence of the Archbishops of Glasgow ; 
Camfcusnethan, as already stated, having being one of their 
mensal kirks. James Blackadder was created the first 
Archbishop of Glasgow in 1484. He was succeeded by 
James Beaton, uncle to Cardinal Beaton, from 1509 till 1539. 
He was a cunning intriguer, especially in political matters ; 
and as he lavished a great deal of money on church property, 
it is not improbable that Garrion tower may have been built 
during his administration. Gavin Dunbar, who was present 
at the condemnation of Patrick Hamilton, our first Scottish 
martyr — who gave his sanction to the death of Kennedy and 
Russell at Glasgow — and who, annoyed by the effective 
preaching of Wishart in the west of Scotland, was the first 
to suggest that the civil power should help the church in 
putting heretics to death — was Archbishop from 1539 till 
1552. James Beaton, a nephew of the Cardinal, succeeded 



14 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

Dunbar in 1552. During his episcopate — in 1560 — Popery, 
by a vote of the Scottish parliament, was abolished as the 
national religion. Beaton immediately left Scotland, for 
France, carrying with him, however, the valuable gold and 
silver plate, together with many valuable documents and 
records belonging to Glasgow cathedral, vowing they should 
never be restored to it till the Catholic faith was again 
triumphant in Scotland. He was the last of the Popish 
bishops. The first Protestant Archbishop was James Boyd 
of Trochrig, from 1581 till 1589. Singular enough, and as 
a proof of the many inconsistencies and contradictions in 
the public life of James VI., he restored the Popish Beaton 
to his title and emoluments in 1598; but Beaton never 
returned to Scotland, and died at Paris in 1603, at a very 
advanced age. James was on his way to London, to ascend 
the throne of England, when he received intelligence of 
Beaton's death, and at once promoted Spottiswood to the 
vacant see. Spottiswood, the historian of the Scottish 
church, was advanced to the see of St. Andrews, and 
had the honour of crowning Charles I. in 1633. He was 
succeeded in Glasgow by Bishop Law, from 1615 till 1632, 
and Law by Bishop Lyndsay, in 1633. Lyndsay was 
Bishop during the famous General Assembly which met in 
the cathedral of Glasgow in 1638, but grave charges having 
been instituted against him before this Assembly, and proven, 
he was deposed and excommunicated. When Prelacy was 
set up in Scotland by Charles II., in 1661, Andrew Fairfowl, 
who had been Presbyterian minister at Leith, was created 
Bishop of Glasgow. He must have been the occasional 
occupant of Garrion tower. Bishop Burnet, in his " His- 
tory of his own Times," characterises Fairfowl " as having 



PARISH OF GAMBUSNETHAN. 15 

been insinuating and crafty — a better physician than a 
divine — scarcely free from scandals — a man, also, who had 
not only sworn the covenants, but persuaded others to do 
so. It has been told of him that when a person one day in 
conversation with him objected to swear the covenants, be- 
cause they went against his conscience, the Bishop replied, 
" there were some good medicines that could not be chewed, 
but were to be swallowed down without any farther exam- . 
ination." Fairfowl was succeeded by Alexander Burnet, a 
hater of Presbyterian rule, and whose favourite maxim was, 
44 the only way to deal with a fanatic was to starve him." 
lie was the chief promoter of persecution in the west of 
Scotland during the bloody times of Charles II. — a meddler 
in some matters which did not belong to him — and, for such 
intermeddling, came ultimately to be deprived of his bish- 
opric. 

One of the successors of Burnet was Bishop Paterson, 
who was so devoid of feeling as actually to offer insult to 
two females, as they were led to the scaffold, saying to 
them, " you would never hear a curate pray, but you shall 
hear one now." They, however, disappointed both bishop 
and curate, as, by agreement, they commenced singing the 
twenty- third Psalm, in so loud and firm a key, as utterly 
to drown the curate's voice, as he proceeded to read from 
the Service Book. Paterson was a worthless man. Sir 
Walter Scott, in a foot-note to " FountainhalUs Chrono- 
logical Notes," mentions, that to such an extent did he carry 
his profligacy, as actually to introduce it into the pulpit. 
He had given his promise to a lady that he would be think- 
ing of her when in the delivery of his sermon ; and, in token 



16 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

of it, ho would, at a particular passage, lift his bandstrings 
and kiss them. From that day he was nicknamed u Bishop 
Bandstrings." So very odious was he in the estimation of 
the Glasgow students, that they actually burned him in 
effigy on the public street, without receiving any hinderance 
from the civic authorities. He was the last of the Glasgow 
bishops, having been ejected at the period of the Revolution. 
He then retired into private life, and died in Edinburgh in 
1703. 

In these brief notices of the episcopal proprietors, and 
occasional occupants of Garrion tower, special mention 
must be made of the immediate predecessor of Paterson — 
Archbishop Leighton. He was, first of all, Presbyterian 
minister in the parish of Newbattle, near Edinburgh — -then, 
ten years principal of the college of Edinburgh — then, 
through the craft of the wily James Sharpe, created Bishop 
of Dunblane — and, about 1670, became Archbishop of Glas- 
gow. During his residence in Edinburgh, and previous to 
his going over to the side of Prelacy, he lived on terms of 
great intimacy with James Steuart of Coltness, then provost 
of Edinburgh. His occasional visits to Garrion tower, and 
Cambusnethan parish, led him to be occasionally at Colt- 
ness. In the " Coltness Collection of Papers," published by 
the "Maitland Club," there are interesting records of dis- 
cussions between Leighton and members of the Coltness 
family. They did not forget what his father had suffered 
at the hands of Prelacy in London, nor his own early pre- 
dictions for Presbyterianism, and on some occasions they 
must have handled him roughly, and said severe things 
to him. Thomas Steuart — who afterwards became Sir 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 17 

Thomas, and who suffered severely during the persecuting 
period — had one day, during dinner, excited in the bishop's 
mind so much of painfulness of feeling, that, on returning 
home, he was so chafed in spirit, as to have said, " that 
young man Thomas is as hot as pepper. He was during 
dinner never off this turf of Scotland. He has got a Pres- 
byterian crotchet in his pericranium, and will never get it 
out again. I wish I had stayed at home, and chewed gra- 
jnel/' The case of Leighton will come to be again noticed, 
in the next lecture, in connexion with the troubles of the 
persecuting period. Take him all in all, he was probably 
the best bishop who has slept under the roof of the old tower 
of Garrion ; and, when I sometimes look at the old roofless 
structure in Cambusnethan church -yard, I do not forget 
that, as Leighton loved retirement, and must have spent 
many quiet seasons at Garrion tower, his voice in proclaim- 
the gospel — and he was highly evangelical in his views — 
must have been frequently listened to within these now 
roofless walls. 

We shall now proceed to another object of antiquarian 
interest. Striking off from the bottom of the Main Street 
of Wishaw, along the Cleland road, towards Coltness mill 
and bridge, and before crossing the bridge, the attention of 
a careful observer will be arrested by the evidence which 
the bank on the right hand bears of having been at one time 
exposed to the severe action of fire. In the " Coltness 
Collection of Papers, " already alluded to, some of which 
were written more than two hundred years ago, there is 
particular notice taken of these burned banks, and their 
charred appearance accounted for. It would appear that, 
c 



18 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

at the point where the streamlet which flows through 
Temple-gill joins the Calder, seams of coal, of considerable 
thickness, and affording a plentiful supply of fuel, jutted 
out. That particular locality was called " Col Ness " Ness 
is the old Saxon term for a nose, projection, or headland, 
and forms the terminal syllable of the names of many places 
in the kingdom — as Gartness, Inverness, Blackness, Sheer- 
ness. The inhabitants of Cambusnethan, during last 
century, when speaking of Coltness house or estate, in their 
ordinary conversation, never said u Coltness, " but invari- 
ably u Col Ness ;" thus, by their pronunciation, keeping 
up the original name — the coal point — which ultimately 
came to give a name to the now extensive and valuable 
Coltness estate. At the point above referred to, where the 
coal projected and the streamlet joins the Calder, it would 
appear, from the information contained in the earlier papers 
of the " Coltness Collection," there was a tradition, that, 
several centuries before, a village had stood there. It 
was alluded to as " the auld tonn o' Col Ness." There 
was another tradition, that, when the country was being 
invaded " in Wallace's days," a party of English soldiers, 
bent on pillage and devastation, sacked " the auld toun o' 
Col Ness," and then set it on fire. The coal having caught 
fire, the conflagration spread northward along the bank 
fronting the river Calder, and, after a lapse of between five 
and six hundred years, the incinerated banks remain as a 
record of devastation, only top frequently occurring at a 
period when Scotland had not yet succeeded in her struggle 
for national independence. 

A little way beyond Coltness bridge, on the east bank of \ 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 19 

the C alder, there is a mineral well, which was dedicated to 
Saint Winifred, and which has been vulgarly called "Wincie 
well." Saint Winifred was a nun, belonging to North Wales, 
and very nearly related to the royal family. In a dark and 
superstitious age, it was not a very difficult thing, for inter- 
ested parties, to attribute miraculous virtues to the waters 
of particular wells whose waters were only medicinal. And 
as a particular well in North Wales was reputed to possess 
miraculous virtues through the merits of Saint Winifred, 
many wells, in various places, were either consecrated to 
her, or regarded as sharing very highly in her patronage 
and curative virtue. The " Wincie well' 7 was one of them; 
and in the " Coltness Papers" it is stated that, in supersti- 
tious times, oblations to the Saint were tied with scarlet 
thread to the bushes around " Wmcie well," as an expres- 
sion of the gratitude of those who regarded themselves as 
having been cured by the marvellous virtue of its waters. 

Leaving the locality of " the auld toun o" Col Ness," we 
shall now pass down to the vale of Clyde—- to the site of 
"the auld kirk." The earliest notice which we have as yet 
met with, bearing on the ecclesiastical affairs of this parish, 
does not carry us beyond the middle of the twelfth century. 
During the reign of William the Lion, the barony of Cam- 
busnethan was granted to W T illiam Finnemund. The 
Abbot of Kelso was then titular over the church lands, at 
least in the lower part of the barony. At that period it 
was customary for the barons to have private chapels in 
their manor-houses. On conditions, which have already 
been referred to, William Finnemund was permitted to 
have a private chapel in his manor-house, which was dedi- 



20 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

cated to Saint Michael. It is very probable that the 
accommodation in this private chapel was soon found too 
limited for the necessities of the district and that it became 
necessary to erect a regular place of worship, with its 
accompanying burial ground, a little to the westward of the 
manor-house, on a portion of land which in earlier docu 
ments is called " Kirkfield,'* 1 but in more modern documents 
the lands of " Carbarns." This is the more probable, as in 
one of the earliest records in the " Cartulary of Kelso," and 
during the reign of William the Lion, there is a specific 
reference to to the church u de Kambusnaythan." In the 
same " Cartulary" there is a copy of a charter granted by 
the Abbot to Walter, Bishop of Glasgow, in the year 1232, 
in which Cambusnethan is mentioned as being within the 
Glasgow diocese. The last notice of Cambusnethan, in the 
u Cartulary of Kelso," occurs in a long list of privileges 
granted by Pope Innocent V. to the Abbey, in which Cam- 
busnethan is mentioned as one of the churches over which 
the Abbot of Kelso had supervision. That the old church 
of Cambusnethan, in the vale of Clyde, was also dedicated 
to Saint Michael, may be presumed from the following 
circumstance. In the Records of the Lords of Council, 
under date 10th October, 1495, there is an entry to the 
following effect. The Lady Sommerville, of Cambusnethan, 
had protested against John Inglis, the chaplain, having any 
right to certain church lands in Cambusnethan which he 
claimed and enjoyed, so long as he had not produced any 
charter from the King, shewing that he had a royal grant, 
entitling him to said lands. The chaplain, however, pro- 
duced his titles, and the minute of council then runs on in 
the following terms : "Anent ye foundatione of a chappelancy 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 21 

of Saint Michaelis chappel of Cambuskinethan, one ye ferd 
day of Julii in ze yere of God i m , iii c , lxxxvi. yeris. Item, 
a charter maid be AVilliam Sommeraule, Lord of Carnwath, 
of ye dait of ye xx day of Aprile, in ye zere of God i*o, 
iiii c xxiii yeris, and als producit a sentence definitive gevin 
be ye officiale of Glasgow aganis Lady Sommeraule in ye 
said matter." As Baron Sommerville, of Cambusnethan, 
was then probably the only heritor in the parish, the burden 
of the expense of the erection of the church may have fallen 
upon him. The date of its erection cannot be accurately 
ascertained. Nothing of it at present exists, beyond the 
wall around the burial place of the progenitors of the Right 
Honourable Lord Belli aven, where they have been laid for 
nearly three centuries, and the outline of the foundation of 
the western portion of the church, covered with soil which 
has accumulated for the last two hundred years. It was a 
place of Roman Catholic worship long before the period of 
the Reformation, and must have then been in a substantial 
state, as it served for a parochial church a century later. 
In a testament executed by Allan Steuart, of Allanton, on 
the 12th July, 1547, the name of John Lyndesay occurs as 
curate of Cambusnethan, and as one of the subscribing wit- 
nesses. On the 21st August, 1552 — eight years before the 
Reformation from Popery was publicly proclaimed in Scot- 
land — the Lady of Cambusnethan made her last will, and 
a copy of this testament exists among the " Commissary 
Records " of Glasgow. One of the subscribing witnesses 
subscribes thus, — u Joannis Lyndesay, curatus de Cambus- 
nethan ;'' thus intimating to all whom it may now concern, 
that John Lyndesay was the curate, officiating in Cambus- 
nethan kirk, at least 312 years ago. The godly and 



22 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

enlightened in Scotland were then awaking from the slum- 
bers of Popery, and were daring to test its dogmas by the 
Scriptures of truth. The martyrdom of Patrick Hamilton 
and others — the ministry of Wishart and Wallace, and 
Mill and Knox — in some measure had prepared the Scottish 
barons for the testimony which they bore against Popery in 
the year 1560 ; and if John Lyndesay was then alive, he 
must, in that year, have said and sung his last mass at the 
altar of " the auld kirk o' Cam'nethan." 

By a vote of the Protestant ncbles, in Parliament assem- 
bled, Popery was formally condemned and abolished, while 
Protestantism was voted in its stead — the venerable Lord 
Lyndsay, rising in his place, and alluding to his extreme 
age, declared, " that since God had spared him to see that 
day, and the accomplishment of so worthy a work, he was 
ready to say with Simeon, c Nunc dimittis^ " It was one 
thing, however, to silence and eject the curates and the 
Papal clergy, but another thing to supply their places with 
Protestant ministrations. The resources of Protestantism 
in Scotland, to meet the spiritual necessities of the nation 
at that most critical period in her religious history, were 
very scanty. There were only twelve ministers in Scotland 
at that time whose principles could be confided in, or who 
were deemed competent to have a full dispensation of gospel 
ordinances put into their hands. Again, not more than one 
individual out of a hundred, out of the general body of the 
people, could read. Under these circumstances, the leaders 
in the Protestant movement had to devise temporary expe- 
dients. The country was mapped out into twelve sections 
: — a minister was appointed to superintend each section — 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 23 

and the whole of Clydesdale and Ayrshire was placed under 
the charge of Mr. John Willock. Among the expedients 
which the emergency occasioned were, the preparation of a 
prayer-book, to be used in public worship, and the appoint- 
ment of duly qualified persons to be " readers " of the 
Scriptures on the Lord's day, and other days of public 
worship. The prayer-book assisted " the reader " in con- 
ducting the devotions of the people ; and when individuals 
of this order possessed approved gifts, they were permitted 
to give "a word of exhortation, to solemnize marriages, 
and, in special cases, to administer baptism/' The interior 
of the sanctuary required to be re-modelled, and adapted to 
the new modes of worship. The altar and other pieces of 
furniture, pertaining to the abolished ritual, were removed. 
In many churches, as yet, there was no pulpit, because it 
was very seldom the superintendent could be present, or 
other minister competent to occupy it The only article of 
sanctuary furniture, pertaining to the Romish service, which 
was deemed worth retaining was the small portable reading 
desk, on which the bulkier service-books were laid during 
the celebration of mass. It was called u the lectern? 9 or 
u lettern" probably from the French word lutrin, or the 
Latin word lego. Even so late as the beginning of the 
present century, it was customary for old people, especially 
in rural districts in Scotland, to speak of the precentor's 
desk as " the lettern" 

It appears that "John Lyndesay" was the last of the 
Romish curates in Cambusnethan. As the Act of Parlia- 
ment had abolished Popery, it also ejected him from his 
office and living in Cambusnethan, His place was supplied 



24 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

by a reader, whose name was John Hamiltoune, whose 
stipend was fixed at xxlbs. and " the thryd of his vicarage," 
amounting to viK). xiijs. and iiijd. In the year 1507 he was 
succeeded by William Nassmyth, whose stipend was xxlbs. 
Mr. Thomas Muirhead, son of the laird of Lauchop, was 
minister of the parish of Cambusnethan from November, 
1603, till May, 1634, in which month he died. It would 
appear that during his ministry the services of " a reader " 
were deemed requisite, as in the copy of Mr. Muirhead's 
last will and testament, engrossed in the Commissary Ke • 
cords of Glasgow in November, 1635, it purports to have 
been written by u Mr. Francis Kincaid, r eider in Cambus- 
nethan." Mr. Muirhead's successor was Mr. James Hamil- 
ton, who belonged to the Hamiltons of Broomhill — the family 
from which the Hamiltons of Wishaw are descended, and 
was a brother to the first Lord Belhaven. He was admitted 
minister at the old kirk of Cambusnethan in December, 
1635, and was minister there in the year 1650, when it was 
resolved to abandon the old kirk, and build a new place of 
worship in a more central and convenient part of the parish, 
on the lands of Greenhead. Up to this date the manse had 
been at Kirkhill ; but, though a new manse was as much 
needed as a new kirk, Mr. Hamilton objected to leave the 
fertile and sunny slopes of Kirkhill, and go to reside on the 
cold, wet soil at Greenhead. An excambion, under these 
circumstances, was effected between the glebe lands at 
Kirkhill and equivalent lands at a place then called "Croft- 
flathead," the site of the present manse of Cambusnethan. 
Mr. Hamilton was minister in the parish during the troub- 
lous days of Charles I. and the earlier years of Charles II. 
He played rather a prominent part of the game in which 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 25 

the notorious James Sharpe, who became Archbishop of 
Saint Andrews, was the prime mover. The part which Mr. 
Hamilton acted led to his elevation, and, at the same time, 
to his removal from the parish ; but the particulars properly 
fall under the topic of the next lecture, — the share which 
the parish had in the troubles and sufferings of the perse- 
cuting period. 

Mr. James Hamilton, of Udston, who died in the year 
1 628, and who was the near kinsman of William Hamilton, 
of Wishaw, seems to have taken an interest in the old 
church of Cambusnethan. In his last will and testament, 
he left in legacy " ane hundrid pundis to buy ane bell to the 
kirk of Cambusnethan, and this hundrid pundis to be warit 
be the sicht of Mr. Thomas Muirhead, Broomhill, and my 
oy, and to this use allenarilye." The will of Mr. Hamilton 
in regard to the said bell was faithfully executed. The 
" hundrid pundis" were " warit" on it. So long as the 
old kirk could be occupied in the valley, the fine tones of 
this bell were regularly heard, summoning the parishioners 
to worship, and whenever a corpse was being borne to where 
u the rude forefathers of the hamlet" slept. The kirk was 
then very old, and soon became so uncomfortable that it 
had to be abandoned ; but, in Mr. Hamilton's latter will, 
it had been expressly provided that the bell was to be the 
kirk bell, and " for that use allenarilye.'" Consequently, on 
the erection of the new church on the lands of Greenhead, 
the bell was elevated into its new belfry, and there it swung 
and chimed for two hundred years. So much for the origin 
of the old bell, and its history. When the church at Green- 
head, in its turn, became ruinous and roofless, the bell 



25 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

continued to remain in its place for years — an interesting 
relic of the first Protestant place of worship in the parish. 
It became necessary, however, to remove it from its old 
belfry, much to the regret of the schoolboys, who liked to 
scramble up to it and cause it speak out its fine silvery 
tones. It was laid aside in safety, but where it now is few 
are aware. The old folks, comparing its tones with those 
of the new bell at Cambusnethan, feel no hesitation in say- 
ing they were by far the richer of the two. The will of the 
testator, however, exists on record, describing, in that fine 
old Scotch phrase — of such importance in the language of 
Scotch conveyancing — that " the hundrid pundis" were for 
a kirk bell, and "for that use allenarilye" 

The old kirk in the valley having been erected previous 
to the Reformation, was internally sectioned off for tire 
services of Popish worship. This may be inferred from the 
circumstance, that, even in Protestant times, the portion of 
it where the services had been chaunted continued to be 
called u the choir." The Sommervilles of Cam'nethan had 
been in the practice, for ages, of burying their dead " in 
the choir" of the church. About the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, the barony of Cambusnethan became the 
property of Sommerville of Drum, and he came and resided 
on it. During this residence one of his daughters died. He 
was about to bury her in the choir, in the graves of his 
forefathers, when Walter Steuart of Allanton thought pro- 
per to take steps to prevent this. There is a high probabil- 
ity that there was a good deal of family feeling then existing 
on both sides, and that Allanton thought fit to interpose 
the weight of his influence on the occasion and manner 



PARISH OF COIBUSNETHAN. 27 

referred to. The reason which he assigned for preventing 
Sommerville from burying in the choir was, that the General 
Assembly had passed an Act forbidding any farther burying 
within churches. Sommerville was disposed to set the Act 
of the Assembly at defiance. Allanton, on the other hand, 
would not resile from the step he had already taken ; and, 
being an elder of the church, got the Presbytery to convene 
in the emergency, and thus interpose their authority to 
restrain Sommerville. The Presbytery, finding that the 
Act of the Assembly was so explicit as to tie up their 
hands, instructed their clerk to write to Sommerville, signi- 
fying that he ought to respect the authority and injunction 
of the supreme court of the church ; and, knowing the 
temper of the man they had to deal with, affixed to their 
communication this emphatic clause, that if he forcibly 
buried his dead within the choir, he would undoubtedly be 
visited with the highest censures of the church. He was 
about to set the Presbytery at defiance, when his friends 
advised him, for the sake of peace, to submit. • He did so, 
and buried his dead at the east gable of the choir, without, 
"placing a large monument, with much imagery and several 
inscriptions engraven thereon, over the burial place." We 
shall again hear of this monument, and of the misfortune 
which befel it, as a further illustration of the bad feeling 
existing at the time between some of the principal families 
in the parish. 

At the period to which we have now advanced — the 
middle of the seventeenth century — the Steuarts of Allan- 
ton, the representatives of a very old family, were rapidly 
rising in wealth and influence in the parish; while the 



28 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

Sommervilles of Cambusnethan, once the principal family, 
were as rapidly declining. Indeed, so very reduced in ex- 
tent had the Cambusnethan estate now become, from what 
it had at one time been, that in very few years the remaining 
portion, chiefly around the mansion-house, was for ever 
severed from a family with whom it had been for the previous 
three hundred years. The baronial pride of the last repre- 
sentative of the Sommervilles of Cambusnethan was, how- 
ever, as lofty in ideas of family superiority as ever. By 
every possible method, he endeavoured to claim precedence 
in all things over the house of Allanton. During the Com- 
monwealth, when the fiscal affairs of the nation were entirely 
in the hands of Cromwell, the Protector gave orders that 
a new rent roll of estates should be made up. This was a 
capital opportunity for Sommerville to shew off his rental 
to advantage, though at the expense of his pocket, and he 
availed himself of it. Steuart of Allanton, on this occasion, 
displayed more worldly policy. He could explain why his 
rent roll shewed a lower figure than that of his Cam'nethan 
friend, and was in the habit of slyly remarking that his 
property "was situated in a cold, moorland district, and 
was not to be compared with his neighbour's at Cam'nethan, 
which lay so bonny and bield." The eleventh Lord Som- 
merville, u the gossiping annalist" of his forefathers, thought 
fit to shew his spleen against the house of Allanton in a 
most unprovoked and unjustifiable manner. He represents 
the laird of Allanton as a mere u feuar of the Earl of Tweed- 
dale in Aughtermuir, whose predecessors never came to sit 
above the salt- foot, at the laird of Cam'nethan's table, which 
for ordinary every Sabbath they dined at, as did most of the 
honest men in the parish of any account." No language, 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 29 

in that age, could have been more contemptuous; and 
serves to illustrate how maliciously feudalism could express 
itself with its expiring breath. The success of the measures 
which Mr. Steuart had adopted, to prevent the Sommervilles 
from burying " in the choir," was dexterously followed up. 
Mr. Steuart was induced to take another step. He was an 
elder of the General Assembly ; and in a petition to the 
Assembly, in the year 1649, he set forth the wretched, im- 
passable state of the roads in the lower part of the parish, 
especially in winter, coupled with his distance, and that of 
others, from the parish church, and craving that the Assem- 
bly would pass an Act for building another church in 
some convenient place beyond Aughterwater — offering, at 
the same time, to give ground for a manse and glebe, while 
contributing a very liberal sum, along with the heritors in 
the upper part of the parish, toward the building of this 
church. He was obviously stealing a march on the laird of 
Cam'nethan, as he expected the Act to be passed at the 
very next sitting of the Assembly. In this, however, he 
was disappointed. The Duke of Hamilton was titular of 
the teinds, and his trustees objected, on the ground that if 
the Assembly granted the prayer of this petition, provision 
would require to be made for two stipends, which, it was 
alleged, the value of the whole teinds would not admit. 
The objection so weighed with the Assembly as to lead 
them to refuse granting the prayer of the petition. Mr. 
Steuart, however, renewed it under a different form. He 
set forth that the church was becoming old ; and being 
situated at the very lower extremity of the parish, was very 
inconveniently located for the parishioners ; and, therefore, 
that a new church should be erected, in a more central and 



30 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

convenient position. His brother, who was then provost of 
Edinburgh and proprietor of Coltness, encouraged him in 
his endeavour to obtain a new church. The proprietor of 
Cambusnethan violently opposed this measure. The church 
had hitherto been in close proximity to his mansion-house, 
and along with this circumstance there were very strong 
local and family associations which would cease to exist if 
the church were removed farther up the parish. He at 
length gave way, on condition that the church was erected 
on the lands of Greenhead. These lands were not now in 
his possession, but they formerly had been a portion of the 
Oam'nethau estate, and his baronial pride gratified itself on 
the bare recollection of what the estate had once been, and 
conjured up visions, pleasing to himself, out of things which 
had passed away. 

The parties who undertook to execute the mason and 
wright work of the new church were John Miller, in Water- 
saugh, and Alexander King. They calculated on finishing 
the work, in at least twelve months, for about three thousand 
merks, the parishioners carting the materials. The bargain, 
however, does not seem to have been gone into in a very 
business manner. There were misunderstandings, and 
heart-burnings among the heritors, which greatly tended to 
retard the work, and occasion additional expense. Instead 
of three thousand merks, the new church cost nearly seven 
thousand ; and instead of being finished in one year, seven 
years elapsed before it was fit to be occupied. In the papers 
of that time it is stated, that, owing to long exposure to the 
weather, a great deal of the wood was actually rotten before 
the church could be slated. 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 31 

One or two incidents may be mentioned to illustrate the 
state of feeling, on church matters, subsisting among the 
principal families at that period. The removal of the church 
from the vale of Clyde was displeasing to one parfc}% and 
the delay in completing the new one at Greenhead must 
have irritated another party. Age had 'undoubtedly rendered 
the old church uncomfortable ; but some persons, interested 
in the early and entire abandonment of it, thought fit to 
unroof a portion of it, and thus expose the congregation 
during the inclemency of weather. A portion of the coping 
of the east gable was, under cloud of night, thrown down, 
so as to render the structure still more ruinous ; and very 
unfortunately — if not designedly — some stones fell on the 
beautiful monument, with its "imagery," which Sommerville 
of Drum had erected over the grave of his daughter, and 
broke it into four pieces. This was a very untoward event, 
It revived the question as to the right to bury in the choir ; 
and the result was, that as the old church was soon to be 
abandoned as a place of worship, Allanton deemed it expe- 
dient to discontinue burying his dead at the old church. He 
enclosed a tomb, as his family burial place, at the back wall 
of the new church at Greenhead. When the old church 
had been abandoned as a place of worship, the Act of 
Assembly prohibiting from burying in churches ceased to 
take effect at the old kirk of Cambusnethan. The Sommer- 
villes resumed their right to bury " in the choir," and to this 
day the spot is the burial-place of the Cam'nethan family. 
The Steuarts of Coltness — a younger branch of the house of 
Allanton — retained their burial-place " in the choir." The 
Coltness tomb was, a few years ago, built up, having re- 
ceived the mortal remains of the last male representative of 
this distinguished family. 



32 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

After a delay of years, the new church at Greenhead was 
at length completed. Before being formally opened for 
public worship, it became necessary to allocate among the 
heritors their respective proportions of church accommoda- 
tion. Unexpected difficulties prevented a speedy or com- 
fortable division of the pews. The heritors had now for 
years been familiar with conflicting views and interests, and 
this fresh ground of variance among them led to a violent 
and protracted struggle. The proprietor of Coltness had 
been very liberal in contributing to the building of the 
church, perhaps more so than any of the other heritors, and 
on this account he considered himself entitled to much the 
larger share of church accommodation. But Wishaw, Green, 
Muirhouse, Lamington, and other heritors, were dissatisfied 
with the proportion alloted to them, or with the particular 
position in which their proportion was situated. The grand 
question, however, was, who was best entitled to the seat 
fronting the pulpit, or the most honoured seat in the church? 
The patronage of the church being in the Cam'nethan family, 
they very naturally considered they had a priority of claim. 
Steuart of Coltness, as has already been noticed, had most 
generously contributed a large sum beyond his legal share 
in the building of the church ; and, having taken a peculiar 
interest in superintending the work while in progress, con- 
sidered that, on these accounts, he was entitled to preced- 
ence. Steuart of Allanton, however, had been the first to 
move in the initiatory steps to obtain a new church, on its 
present site, and had carried his measures in the face of 
great opposition. Indeed, but for his zeal in the matter, it 
was questionable whether a new church would at that time 
have been obtained, at least at Greenhead. The area of 



PAKISH OF CAMBUSNETHABT. 33 

the aisle fronting the pulpit had been claimed by Coltness, 
and allocated to him ; but Allanton claimed the gallery in 
said aisle as his right, in acknowledgment of the interest 
which he had taken in obtaining the new church. Coltness 
was the last to accede to the claim of his relative, the pro- 
prietor of Allanton. For the sake of securing peace, to 
which they had so long been strangers, and which was now, 
certainly desirable, he acceded on the following conditions : 
that the front of the Allanton gallery should be kept two 
feet within the line of the back wall of the church, and that 
the front pew of the Coltness seats on the area should extend 
five feet beyond the front of the Allanton gallery. The 
west gallery of the church was appropriated to the Coltness 
estate, and the east gallery to the Cam'nethan and Lam- 
ington estates. Such unhappy and protracted proceedings 
in the building of churches, and division of church accom- 
modation, have been only too common in Scotland since the 
Revolution settlement. Even Dissenting churches have not 
been altogether exempted from the injurious influence of 
similar proceedings. The popular element in churches is all 
the better for a safety-valve ; and though the superfluous 
steam, in escaping, be sometimes noisy enough, yet it is 
well that it does find vent, as safety and peace are, in 
ordinary cases, thereby speedily secured. It will, however, 
be always a matter of regret, with all serious-minded per- 
sons in a congregation, when two or three individuals allow 
their private and personal interests to over-ride the peace, 
prosperity, and edification of a whole church. 

The minister of Cambusnethan parish, at the period of 
the erection of the church at Greenhead, was Mr. James 



34 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

Hamilton, brother to the first Lord Belhaven. We shall 
particularly hear of him again during the persecuting period 
in Scotland. In the year 1669, an indulged minister, Mr. 
William Vilant, was minister till the year 1684, when he was 
imprisoned by order of the Privy Council, and obliged to 
find caution to remove from the kingdom within a month. 
In the year 1687, a toleration was granted to the banished 
ministers to return home. Mr. Yilant availed himself of it, 
and was moderator of the Synod of Glasgow and Ayr, which 
met that year in Glasgow, in a private house. In the month 
of October of that year, the people of Hamilton, of the Pres- 
byterian persuasion, were desirous to enjoy his ministry ; 
but at a meeting held at Bothwell, 14th February, 1688, Mr. 
Vilant u adhered to his acceptance of the call of the parish 
of Cambusnethan.'' The Synod, which met at Paisley on 
the first Tuesday of April, confirmed Mr. Vilant in his re- 
solution to remain at Cambusnethan. His name appears on 
the records of the Presbytery of Hamilton for the last time, 
on the 21st April, 1791. After this he was installed Pro- 
fessor of Divinity at St. Andrews, which office he continued 
to occupy during the remainder of his life. 

On the 31st May, 1692, a call was given by the parish of 
Cambusnethan in favour of Mr. John Muirhead, preacher 
of the gospel, who was ordained on the 1st September there- 
after, and, after a ministry of forty-one years, died in the 
year 1733. He was buried in the old church-yard, and the 
inscription on his tombstone is now scarcely legible. 

On the 15th January, 1734, "Mr. Lockhart of Cam- 
busnethan requested the Presbytery to indke Mr, Craig, 



PARISH OP CAMBUSNETHAN. 35 

preacher of the gospel, Glasgow, to preach before them at 
the next meeting." The opposition in the parish of Cam- 
busnethan to Mr. Craig was very formidable, as he seems to 
have been unacceptable to the people. It led to an appeal 
to the General Assembly, by several heritors and elders. 
The Assembly having heard the appeal, " remitted to the 
Presbytery of Hamilton, to proceed in the settlement of the 
parish as they shall judge best for the edification of the 
congregation." The parish continued in a very agitated 
state till the 25th January, 1737, when the Presbytery at 
last agreed to proceed to admit Mr. Craig. Seven of the 
elders gave in a protestation to the Presbytery ; but Mr. 
Craig was ordained on the 20th April of that year ; and, 
eventually, the protesting elders, refusing to resile from the 
grounds of their protestation against Mr. Craig, who had 
been intruded upon them as their pastor, were declared to 
be no longer elders in said parish. These seven elders, out 
of a session of nine members, were John Bell, David Downie, 
Robert Keddar, Alexander Cleland, James Prentice, George 
Russel, and John Steill. The step which they were neces- 
sitated to take, along with all who adhered to them, and 
the results which followed their having taken it, will be in 
due time narrated. 

Mr. Craig's incumbency at Cambusnethan was brief; as 
on the 1st January, 1738, a call in his favour was laid on 
the table of the Presbytery of Hamilton, by the magistrates 
of Glasgow, town council, and general session, as well as 
from the particular session of "the middle quarter of Glas- 
gow," to be their minister. Mr. Craig accepted the call on 
the 28th February, 1738. 



36 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

On the 28th November, 1738, a formal and largely sub- 
scribed call was given to Mr. Thomas Cleland, and he was 
ordained at Cambusnethan on the 1st March, 1739. He 
continued in the parish till 1757. 

Mr. Cleland was succeeded by Mr. Gray, a minister of 
very popular talents ; but, after a very brief ministry, cir- 
cumstances led to his demitting his charge. Mr. Gray was 
succeeded by Mr. Howieson, whose ministry, owing to ill 
health, was continued only a few years. 

The successor of Mr. Howieson was Mr. Kankin, who 
was ordained on the 17th August, 1781, and removed to the 
North-West Church, Glasgow, on the 8th September, 1785. 

Mr. Kankin was succeeded by Mr. Lockhart, who was 
ordained at Cambusnethan on the 28th June, 1786, and 
was removed to Blackfriars Church, Glasgow, on the 30th 
September, 1796. 

Mr. Lockhart was succeeded by Mr. John Thomson, on 
the 13th July, 1797, who was translated to Dairy on the 
18th November, 1802. 

Mr. Thomson was succeeded by Mr. Archibald Living- 
stone, who was ordained on the 13th May, 1803, and died 
on the 26th January, 1852. 

Mr. Robert Shaw Hutton, the present minister of the 
parish, was admitted on the 17th April, 1851. 



The seven elders, who, by a deed of Presbytery, had 






PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 37 

been extruded from office in the National Church, on the 
28th June, 1737, felt constrained, under the circumstances, 
to withdraw from the communion of that church. They 
found many adherents to this step; and, after prayerful 
consideration of the path of duty, applied for sermon from 
the Associate Presbytery on the 1 2th day of the following 
month. This infant Presbytery, which had been in exist- 
ence for little more than three years, had on its table, in 
1737, petitions for sermon from no fewer than upwards of 
seventy places. Cambusnethan was one of them. The 
Presbytery, unable as yet, from the fewness of their num- 
bers, to furnish anything like a regular supply of gospel 
ordinances to so many applicants, adopted the expedient of 
occasionally sending out two and two of their number on an 
extensive mission over the country, at the same time exhort- 
ing the petitioners to form themselves into " praying and cor- 
responding societies,'' thus maintaining fellowship in private 
devotional exercises. The Kev. Ealph Erskine, has the 
following entries in his diary : — 

"Dunfermline, July 12th, 1737. — We had a Presbytery 
in the church — we were appointed, two by two, to go and 
keep a day of fasting among the oppressed people. My 
brother and I were appointed for Cambusnethan, the first 
Wednesday of August coming." 

This appointment was duly intimated to the people of 
Cambusnethan, and reported by them in the surrounding 
districts. The first Wednesday in August fell on the 3d 
day of that month. It happened to be the day of an annual 
fair at the Kirk of Shotts, for trafficing in what were then 
called " soft goods" when both buyers and sellers collected 



38 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

from great distances. The morning was a bright one, and 
the market likely to be a good one ; but at an early hour, 
and when business had scarcely commenced, the tidings 
circulated, with almost telegraphic speed, that Ralph and 
Ebenezer Erskine were to preach at Daviesdykes, in Cam- 
busnethan, at 12 o'clock. Business was at once arrested, 
and the people departed from the market- stance in crowds. 
It became a descriptive phrase, in speaking of the breaking 
up of the fair, to represent it as resembling " the skailin o y 
a kirk;" but to a certainty it was " the skailin d 1 the fair" 
as the sellers were so chagrined at the loss of their market 
that, out of revenge, they resolved not to return on the next 
occasion of the fair. They kept their resolution. Next 
year the fair was a very unsuccessful one, and having for a 
few years lingered out a feeble existence, it was then given 
up. The next entry in Ralph Erskine's diary, bearing upon 
the cause at Cambusnethan, is in the following terms : — 

" Wednesday \ Aug. 3. — I preached in the tent with my 
brother at Cambusnethan, where was a very great auditory. 
I had the forenoon ; and after reading the causes of the fast, 
prefacing and praying, I preached on Jerem. xiii. 16, " Give 
glory to the Lord your God, before he cause darkness.'' 
Afterwards baptized about twenty -six children. We were 
very kindly entertained by the people in that place, and 
they seemed to be refreshed by the fast-day's work — the 
Lord helping in some measure therein. We kept a session 
next day with the elders." 

Two years after this, Mr. Ralph Erskine and Mr. Thom- 
son of Burntisland paid a visit to Cambusnethan. Mr. 
Erskine has the following notes in his diary : — 



PAKISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 39 

" Friday, Sept 14, 1739. — Mr. Thomson and I went to 
the parish of Cambusnethan, and next day to a place therein 
called Daviesdykes, where we staid all Saturday and Sab- 
bath night. 

"Sabbath, Sept. 16, 1739. — We preached in Cambus- 
nethan parish. My text was, " Unto you is the word of 
this salvation sent." The auditory was considerably numer- 
ous, from a great many places. I was helped and strength- 
ened." 

This is a proper place to introduce, for preservation, a 
brief notice of the Seven Elders who performed the more 
active part of the work in the originating of the Secession 
congregation. The senior member was John Bell, resident 
proprietor of Aughterhead, then in his 88th year, having 
been born in the year 1649. He was ordained to the elder- 
ship in the year 1699, and did not long survive the formation 
of the Associate congregation. He was succeeded in office 
by his son James, who was ordained in November, 1751, 
and who died in 1757. 

David Downie, who subscribed the protest against Mr. 
Craig's settlement, and who took the more prominent part 
in opposing that settlement, was born at Cathkers, near 
Allanton, in the year 1697. Several generations of the 
same name had their residence at Cathkers. It was in the 
house of a relative — James Downie, at Easter Kedmyre — 
that the seven elders met to draw up and subscribe their 
protestation, and gave David Downie his commission to 
lodge and support the same before the Presbytery of Ham- 
ilton. 



40 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

Robert Keddar, proprietor of a large portion of the land3 
of Daviesdykes, gave in a separate protestation in his own 
name, as an heritor in the parish, and in the name of several 
other heritors and life-renters. It was on his estate the 
first place of worship was erected. He was the Synod elder 
at the memorable Synod at which the lawfulness of swearing 
the Burgess oath led to a schism. He died in August, 1750. 
In the session records there is the following entry: " August 
19, 1750. For the best mortcloth to Robert Keddar, por- 
tioner of Daviesdykes, £3. 12s. Scots." 

Andrew Cleland resided in Overtown. His father had 
been an elder in the parish in the year 1682, and his own 
ordination must have been sometime between 1703 and 
1739 ; during which period no session records are now in 
existence, to enable us to ascertain the duration of his 
eldership. But as his name appears, for the last time, in 
minute of July, 1760, he must have officiated as an elder in 
the Associate congregation upwards of twenty years. 

James Prentice was a portioner in Stane, and was the 
son of Archibald Prentice. He was baptized April 15, 
1683. His father was one of the sufferers in the troubles 
of the persecuting period, as shall be noticed in its proper 
place. His name appears on a minute of session 1st Feb- 
ruary, 1757? shewing that he had served in the eldership at 
Daviesdykes at least twenty years. 

- George Russel in Stane was ordained to the eldership on 
the 18th July, 1699. He also, like James Prentice, be- 
longed to a family who suffered for conscience sake. His 






PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 41 

father, David Russel — as we shall afterwards have to 
record — was for some time a prisoner in Edinburgh, and 
was severely fined in the Tear 1684. George Russel had a 
son, David, who was ordained an elder in 1765, and who 
was the father of the late Rev. George Russel of the Asso- 
ciate congregation, Dairy. 

John Steill, the last name on the list, was the eldest son 
of James Steill of Liquo. The date and precise duration of 
his eldership have not been ascertained. His name appears, 
for the last time, on the minutes of session under date 
December 9, 1744. He died January 7, 1745. 

In consequence of an unpopular settlement in the parish 
of Shotts in the year 1738, two of the elders in said parish 
seceded, viz., John Wardrop in Forrestburn and James 
"Walker of Halkwoodburn, and joined the session of the 
Associate congregation of Daviesdykes. For a similar 
reason, James Forrest in Sandyland-gate, parish of Carluke, 
who had been ordained in April, 1723, seceded, and joined 
the session and congregation at Daviesdykes. 

When a congregation had been regularly organised at 
Daviesdykes, they immediately set about erecting a suitable 
place of worship. Having feued a piece of ground from 
Robert Keddar of Daviesdykes, they erected a place of 
worship in the year 1740, which they found it necessary to 
rebuild in the year 1780. They next proceeded to obtain a 
settled pastor. The minute of Presbytery under date July 
22, 1740, has the following entry: "The Rev. James Mail 
reported that he had preached and baptized at Cambusnethan 



42 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

on the second Wednesday of July, but that he had not 
moderated a call ; and offered his reasons, which were 
sustained. 1 ' The congregation having repeatedly renewed 
their petition for a moderation, the Presbytery, at a meeting 
in Perth, September 22, 1741, "considering what modera- 
tions they can grant at this time," appointed the Kev. 
Andrew Clerkson to moderate in a call at Cambusnethan, 
on the second Wednesday of November next.' 1 On said 
day — 17th November, 1741 — Mr. Clerkson, after sermon, 
moderated in a call, which was unanimously given to Mr. 
David Horn. His ordination took place at the " Moorkirk 
of Cambusnethan," September 29, 1742. Mr. Fisher preach- 
ed the ordination sermon from Isaiah xxxviii. 14. 

Mr. Horn's ministry lasted for twenty- six years. In the 
year 1768, he was constrained, by the infirmities incident 
to advanced age, to demit his charge of u the congregation. 
He was a well-informed theologian, and acceptable preacher 
of the gospel. He was moderator of the Synod which met 
at Stirling in April, 1748, and is understood to have pre- 
pared the answers explanatory of several questions in the 
u Synod's Catechism'' on the fourth commandment. He 
spent his last years on a small property which he had in 
Kinross-shire. 

In this necessarily brief notice of his ministry, it is proper 
to advert to an office-bearer in his church, whose memory 
to this day continues to be highly and deservedly revered — 
Mr. Archibald Cuthbertson. He was school-master at 
Muiryett, precentor to the congregation, and session-clerk, 
for the long period of thirty-nine years. The fulness and 



PARISH OF CAMBUSlfETHAN. 43 

faithfulness of his records, as the scribe of the session and 
congregation, give a value to the earlier documents which 
cannot be over estimated, and singularly contrast with those 
of other of our older congregations, whose earlier records 
are sparse and unsatisfactory. Mr. Cuthberston died in 
July, 1785. 

There was a long vacancy after the demission of Mr. 
Horn. He, however, occasionally visited the congregation 
in their vacant condition, and ministered to them. During 
the vacancy, the congregation brought out calls in favour of 
the Rev. Mr. Moir, then of Cumbernauld ; Mr. Ballantyne, 
afterwards of Dundee ; Mr. Henderson, afterwards of Glas- 
gow; and Mr. Richardson, afterwards of Greenock; but 
were unsuccessful in obtaining a fixed pastor till June, 1775, 
when Mr. William Scot was ordained. After a ministry of 
thirty-six years, his usefulness and comfort having been 
broken in upon by untoward circumstances, he ( deemed it 
expedient to demit his charge in the year 1811. He died 
on the 28th July, 1821, in the 77th year of his age. 

During the vacancy which ensued, the congregation 
brought out calls in favour of Mr John Tindall, afterwards 
of Rathiilet; and of Mr. Daniel McLean, afterwards of 
Cupar- Angus ; and last, in July, 1815, in favour of Mr. 
Andrew Scott. Mr. Scott received competing calls from 
Lilliesleaf, Auchtermuchty, and Girvan. He was ordained 
at Daviesdykes on the 9th April, 1816. The lease by which 
the congregation held their property at Daviesdykes being 
temporary, and being soon after Mr. Scott's ordination to 
expire, his people wisely resolved to erect a new place of 



44 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

worship at Bonkle, with a manse. This they did in the 
year 1818, at a cost of nearly £1,200; and there, in the 
44th year of his ministry, Mr. Scott continues to labour 
with all the vigour and acceptability of his earlier years. 

At the ^Revolution, the Scottish Parliament abolished 
Prelacy, and restored Presbyterianism as the form of church 
government. The basis, however, on which the Presbyterian 
church was again set up, was far from being satisfactory to 
many, especially in the south and west of Scotland. They 
regarded the covenants which had been framed, sworn, and 
ratified during the church's conflict with Charles I., as the 
palladium of the liberties of their country, and considered 
that, in the settlement of the church, these covenants ought 
to have been recognised. They also felt aggrieved that 
some of the earlier Acts passed in the reign of Charles II. 
had not been formally condemned and disannulled. They 
were farther dissatisfied with the terms of the " Abjuration 
oath ;" looking on this oath as setting aside the tests and 
oaths of preceding Parliaments. They regarded the General 
Assembly as being too compliant with the wishes of those 
in favour — as being favourers of Erastianism — as renounc- 
ing covenant engagements — and as causing reformation 
work, begun by their fathers, to retrograde rather than 
advance. Again, at this period a great many pious persons 
scattered over the western and southern counties, who had 
attached themselves to the persecuted and martyred minis- 
ters, and who were then commonly called u society-men," 
strongly sympathised with those who tabled their grievances 
before the Assembly. Mr. John M'Millan, who had been 
ordained at Balmaghie in 1701, came forward so promi- 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 45 

neatly in condemnation of the defects and corruptions of the 
Revolution church, that a process was commenced against 
him, and, in 1704, he was deposed for what were deemed 
" irregularities" and "disorderly courses." In the year 
1707, he received a harmonious call to be minister of " the 
Societies ;" and from this period became the devoted minis- 
ter of those, scattered over the country, who were witnesses 
for the principles of covenanted Presbyterianism. 

There are good reasons for concluding that Clydesdale 
should be regarded as the cradle in which the principles of 
the Reformed Presbyterian church were nursed. In the 
year 1712, at Auchinsaugh, near Douglas, the adherents of 
Mr. M'Millan renewed the covenants ; and at the same time 
published a testimony to their principles, embodying therein 
the constitution of their church. This circumstance, then, 
identifies them very much with the upper ward of Lanark- 
shire. The next circumstance which we notice is, the origin 
of " the Reformed Presbytery." In the year 1742, " the 
Associate Presbytery" prepared a draught of a "Renewal 
of the Covenants." Mr. Thomas Nairn of Abbotshall took 
exception to the terms of this draught, and avowed his 
having adopted the views of the old dissenters, in relation to 
civil government. He pled that the covenants should be 
renewed in the terms expressed in the Auchinsaugh testi- 
mony, of date July, 1712. Mr. Nairn, on discovering that 
his brethren did not sympathise with his views, renounced 
their authority as a Presbytery, and joined himself to Mr. 
McMillan ; in conjunction with whom he appears to have 
originated "the Reformed Presbytery" on the 1st August, 
1743. Mr. Nairn was received into the fellowship of those 



46 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

adhering to the principles of the Auchinsaugh testimony, at 
Braehead. In the testimony of the Reformed Presbyterian 
church, Braehead is spoken of as " in the parish of Cam- 
wath." There is certainly in that parish a place bearing 
this name ; but there are reasons to question whether the 
Braehead in Carnwath was the place of Mr. Nairn's admis- 
sion. There is a place bearing the name of " Braehead " 
near to Millheugh, in the parish of Dalserf, more likely to 
have been the place in question. In support of this opinion 
it may be mentioned, that although Mr. Nairn had with- 
drawn from the Associate Presbytery, and been formally 
received into another denomination, he seems to have con- 
tinued a process against his former co-presbyters ; and they 
in defence, in November, 1747, prepared and put into his 
hands a libel, which he answered by appearing before them 
in January, 1748. On that occasion the friends of Mr. 
Nairn, accompanied by witnesses, " attempted to execute a 
summons, in the name of the Reformed Presbytery, against 
the moderator of the Associate Synod, and all the members 
of it, charging them to appear before said Presbytery, at 
Braehead, in the parish of Dalserf , on the 15th or 16th day 
of February next." The Presbytery's place of meeting is 
here so definitely described, as to fix it to the middle ward 
of Lanarkshire, and to a locality which was now, more than 
formerly, the stated residence of Mr. M ; Millan. When we 
bring to recollection that he had been ordained in the year 
1701, and that his ministry had been an exhausting one, we 
need not wonder that, in 1748, he sought a settled residence 
for his old age. He died on the 1st December, 1753, in 
the 84th year of his age. He was buried in the church-yard 
of Dalserf. The original stone upon his grave contained a 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 47 

very amp'e inscription, which, it is much to be regretted, is 
now illegible. A few years ago a very handsome monument 
was erected on the spot, to perpetuate the memory of the 
first minister of " the Societies." It also records the minis- 
try of his son and successor at Sandhills, near Glasgow, and 
of his grandson at Stirling. The former died on the 6th 
February, 1808, aged 79 years ; and the latter, on the 20th 
October, 1818, aged 68. 

In Cambusnethan, and the surrounding parishes, there 
must, from an early period, have been many adherents to 
the principles of the covenants. Cambusnethan furnished 
its full share of honourable witnesses for these principles, 
during the period of oppressive and bloody persecution. It 
had its favourite meeting places and hiding places. Within 
the secluded enclosure of Darmeid multitudes occasionally 
congregated to listen to the voices of Cameron, Cargill, and 
Renwick ; and though this spot is seldomer referred to than 
some others, in the narratives of the persecuted, yet it has 
been consecrated by the communings of the best men of the 
covenanting period. Owing to its solitude and safety, 
it was chosen by them, when their circumstances called, for 
prayerful deliberation as to the course which they should 
pursue. It is generally understood, that some of the more 
decisive measures which were then agreed upon, were plan- 
ned in this retreat, and emanated from it. So many asso- 
ciations cling to Darmeid, that it is little to be wondered at, 
that the children of the persecuted revere it, and revisit it, 
remembering u their fathers worshipped in this mountain." 
The writer of this narrative recollects being told by a very 
old man, that when a boy he and a companion went on a 



48 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 






visit to Darmeid. Soon after they had reached it, and were 
resting, under the fatigue of their walk thither, they espied 
a man entering by the only path by which the place was 
approachable, and drawing near the spot where they lay. 
They concealed themselves among the long heather. He 
came within a few yards of them, and after having for some 
time consulted his Bible, he knelt, and for a fall hour poured 
out his soul in audible and fervent prayer and thanksgiving 
to the God of his fathers — recounting the trials through 
which they had passed, and praising God for their faithful- 
ness to the principles which they had espoused. Having 
concluded his prayer, he withdrew by the path by which he 
had entered, occasionally " casting a lingering look behind." 
The prayer presented in that scene of solitude, on such a 
theme, left an impression on the two young hearts which 
the lapse of many years had not in the slightest degree 
effaced. In the year 1836, the Rev. John Graham of 
Wishawtown — now Dr. Graham of Liverpool — preached a 
sermon at Darmeid, when a sum was collected towards the 
erecting of a monumental pillar. It has been inscribed, " In 
memory of Cameron, Cargill, and Renwick, and their breth- 
ren, who worshipped in this spot in the time of the last 
persecution. They jeopardied their lives unto the death in 
the high places of the field." In Allanton house, Darngavel, 
Blackhall, Cam'nethan-mains, and many other pious houses, 
the oppressed frequently assembled for prayer and fellow- 
ship. When these circumstances are taken into considera- 
tion, coupled with the fact that Mr. M'Millan spent his last 
years in the neighbourhood, and must have frequently 
preached in the parish of Cambusnethan, it will be easily 
accounted for that Wishawtown should have been selected 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 49 

as the site of a place of worship. The period preceding the 
organising of a congregation here had been the time of "the 
moveable tabernacle." Even so late as the year 1781, there 
is reference in the minutes of the Reformed Presbytery to 
the congregation of u Stirling and Hamilton:" and as a proof 
of the extent of this congregation, the minutes make refer- 
ence to the occasional dispensation of the Lord's Supper at 
Carluke, Hamilton, Shotts, Motherwell, and Cumbernauld. 

The first pastor of the Reformed Presbyterian Congrega- 
tion in Wishaw was Mr. Archibald Mason. He was born 
in the parish of Old Monkland, on the 15th September, 
1 753 ; educated at Glasgow college ; and licensed to preach 
the gospel on the 12th August, 1783. He could have 
obtained an early settlement in a pastoral charge but for 
the peculiar circumstances of the denomination at the time. 
The supply of preachers was very limited ; and, as the 
people were widely scattered over Scotland, it was found 
expedient that his probationary ministry among them should 
be prolonged much farther than, under other circumstances, 
it would have been. Calls were presented to him from 
Perth and Dundee, as well as from the congregation of 
Wishawtown and Hamilton. Over the latter he was or- 
dained on the 1st May, 1787, at Flemington, in the parish 
of Dalziel. The line of the Caledonian Railway passes 
within a few yards of the spot where Mr. Mason was or- 
dained. The precise spot is marked by a solitary ash tree, 
under whose shadow he was ordained by the imposition of 
hands ; and on the same spot, on the following Sabbath, he 
was introduced to his pastoral charge by the Rev. John 
Thorburn of Pentland. Flemington was the principal scene 

E 



50 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

of his Sabbath ministrations for several years. His people 
were scattered over a very extensive district, on both sides 
of the Clyde. Time was requisite to consolidate them ; 
and, in their circumstances, it required some deliberation 
before determining on a site for erecting a place of worship. 
A few years before this, a project had been originated to 
commence a village on the Wishaw estate, on the public 
road to Lanark; and, as the proprietor wa3 disposed to 
grant leases on very favourable terms, a few cottages had 
been erected. Mr. Mason's congregation, regarding the site 
of this projected village as being somewhat central for them, 
resolved to take in lease as much ground as was deemed 
suitable for a church, manse, and glebe. Their feu- tack is 
dated 5th March, 1792, and was granted to the following 
gentlemen, as trustees on behoof of the congregation, viz. : 
Gavin Rowet, joiner in Hamilton; Thomas Kussel, far- 
mer in Muirhouse ; James Rodger, farmer in Roundtrees ; 
Gavin Scot, in Catraige ; and Thomas Muirhead, in Flem- 
ihgton. On this property a place of worship was in due 
time erected ; and here, for the long period of nearly forty- 
five years, Mr. Mason pursued his ministry, beloved not 
only by his own people, but by all the godly in the district 
who enjoyed his friendship. His mind was enlightened, 
reflective, and studious ; and though his oral ministry was 
not much known beyond the circle of his own denomination, 
he became extensively known, by his writings, throughout 
America, as well as Great Britain. The first of his publica- 
tions was a " Testimony and Warning against Socinian and 
Unitarian Errors,'' in the year 1793, which appeared under 
the sanction of the Reformed Presbytery. The second was, 
a Observations on the Public Covenants," in the year 1799. 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 51 

The nations of Europe were then being convulsed by war 
and revolution, and ominous changes were passing over the 
face of society. Mr. Mason was led to enquire, how far 
these were to be regarded as the fulfilment of prophecy ; 
and his views on many important points in the Prophetic 
Scriptures were published, in a series of works, during the 
subsequent twenty-seven years of his ministry. His third 
publication was a treatise on " Christ, the Mediatorial 
Angel, casting the Fire of Divine Judgment into the Earth," 
which appeared in the year 1800. The fourth was, " The 
Spiritual Illumination of the Gentiles, coeval with the Con- 
version of the Jews," in the year 1816. The fifth was an 
"Inquiry into the Times that shall be fulfilled at Antichrist's 
Fall," which was published in 1818, and met with such 
an acceptance that a new edition had to be brought out in 
the year 1821. The sixth was, " Essays on Daniel's Pro- 
phetic Number," in 1821. And the seventh, in the same 
year, was, "The Fall of Babylon the Great, by the Agency 
of Christ. The eighth was, "A Scriptural View of the 
Divine Mystery concerning the Jews' Blindness and Kejec- 
tion, and the Coming in of the Gentiles' Fulness," in the 
year 1825. The ninth and tenth were in the year 1827, 
entitled, "Remarks on the Sixth Vial, symbolising the Fall 
of the Turkish Empire," and "The Fall of Popery and 
Despotism." The eleventh and last publication was, " Ob- 
servations, Doctrinal and Practical, on Saving Faith," which 
appeared in the year 1829. In the year 1831, the college 
of Schenectady conferred on him the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity ; but he did not long survive to enjoy its well- 
earned honours. He was now in his 79th year, and after 
a confinement to bed of only three days, he departed this 



52 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

life on the 19th November, 1831. He was succeeded by 
Mr. John Graham — now the He v. Dr. Graham of Liver- 
pool — on the 14th August, 1832 ; who, after a ministry in 
Wishaw of fourteen years, was translated to Ayr, on the 
13th August, 1846. After a vacancy of a few years, Mr. 
John Biggar was ordained over the congregation on the 
11th September, 1851 ; but his health having speedily so 
far given way as not to hold out a prospect of early re- 
covery to ministerial usefulness, the pastoral relationship 
was dissolved in 1855. Mr. Robert Thomson Martin, the 
present pastor of the congregation, was ordained on the 
30th July, 1856. 

„,.* Previous to the summer of 1822, the Church at Cambus- 
nethan, the United Secession Church at Bonkle, and the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church in Wishaw, were the only 
places of public worship in the parish. In that year a large 
number of persons belonging to the national church thought 
fit to withdraw from it, and to place themselves under the 
Relief Presbytery of Glasgow. Their first application for 
sermon was presented to that Presbytery on the 6th August, 
1822, and was complied with. On the Sabbath following — 
the 11th day of the month — the Rev. John French, then of 
Strathaven, and latterly of South College Street, Edinburgh, 
preached twice in the open air ; the Reformed Presbyterian 
congregation in Wishaw, on that occasion, kindly granted 
him the use of their " tent " to preach from. The members 
of the first committee of management were — Robert Gard- 
ner, merchant in Wishaw, preses ; John Reid, weaving- 
agent in Wishaw, treasurer; Daniel Baillie, wright in 
Wishaw, clerk ; Alexander Gardner, ploughman at Wishaw 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 53 

farm ; John Ferguson, farmer in Thornlie ; William Som- 
merville, weaver in Wishaw ; Andrew Gold, mason at 
Cambusnethan ; James Marshall, mason in Wishaw; Alex- 
ander King, farmer in High Netherton ; John Neilson, 
farmer in Low Netherton; John Addie, weaver in Wishaw; 
James Steven, weaver in Wishaw ; and James Neilson, in 
Meadowhead. On the 27th August, the committee of 
management appointed a deputation to wait on the Right 
Hon. Lord Belhaven, and endeavour to obtain a suitable 
site for a place of worship. They met with encouragement 
from his Lordship ; and on the 9th September, at a general 
meeting of the congregation, it was u resolved to build as soon 
as possible ; and Thomas Watson, James Marshall, Andrew 
Gold, and Daniel Baillie were appointed to draw out speci- 
fications, in order to ascertain the probable expense, and 
instructed to meet for that purpose the following day." The 
committee met next day — drew out specifications — submit- 
ted them to tradesmen — and, on the 17th of the month, 
closed a contract with Mr. James Marshall, to build the 
meeting-house, and, on the 23d, with Mr. David Lothian, 
for the doors, windows, and roofing of the place of worship. 
The internal fittings of the church were executed by Mr. 
James Dalziel ; and the house was formally opened for 
public worship on the 3d August, 1823, by the Rev. Robert 
Cameron, of East Kilbride. Between this date and the 
month of October, 1824, the congregation repeatedly con- 
vened to deliberate on bringing out a call for a stated pastor. 
On the 6th July, 1824, Mr. Peter Brown was licensed by 
the Presbytery of Glasgow. He preached for the first time 
at Wishaw on the 26th September, and a second time on 
the 17th October. On the 26th October the congregation, 



54 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

having been convened, unanimously agreed to petition the 
Presbytery to allow Mr. Brown to finish his days of proba- 
tion among them ; at the same time craved a moderation 
of a call, and fixed the amount of stipend to Mr. Brown, 
in the event of his accepting their call. Before this petition 
could be presented, the Relief congregation at Hawick had 
called Mr. Brown ; and as he had signified his intention to 
accept it, the congregation at Wishaw continued in a state 
of vacancy. On the 27th June, 1825, they brought out a 
call in favour of Mr. John M'Intyre, who, having accepted 
it, was ordained among them on the 20th October thereafter. 

Immediately upon his ordination, Mr. M'Intyre adopted 
suitable measures for having a session regularly chosen, to 
assist him in the organisation and government of a church. 
Hitherto there had only been a congregation, and as yet the 
Lord's Supper had not been administered to them, nor a 
body of persons associated in church fellowship. On the 
19th March, 1826, James Marshall, mason in Wishaw, 
Andrew Gold, mason in Cambusnethan, John Ferguson, 
farmer in Thornlie, John Brownlie, miller in Garrion-mill, 
and on the 9th July, 1826, William Lindsay, shoemaker at 
Windmillhill, were ordained to the eldership. The Lord's 
Supper was for the first time dispensed on the 16th July, 
1826. William Lindsay died in May, 1851. Andrew Gold 
on the 13th November, 1857. John Ferguson on the 10th 
February, 1858 : and James Marshall on the 21st August, 
1858. John Brownlie of Garrion-mill is, at the present 
date, the only surviving member of the original session. 
Mr. M'Intyre's health visibly began to give way in the 
summer of 1829. His last sermon was delivered on the 



PAKISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 55 

4th October of that year. He died on the 3d March, 1830, 
in the 33d year of his age. The public obituary notices, at 
the time, bore to him the following testimony : — 

" His short, but splendid career, and great promise of 
future usefulness, will long be remembered with mingled 
feelings of pleasure and regret." 

On the 6th September, 1831, the congregation petitioned 
the Presbytery for a moderation in a call. The Presbytery 
appointed it to take place on the 27th of that month. On 
that day the candidates were — the Rev. Peter Brown, 
Hawick ; Mr. James Boyd, now Dr. Boyd of Campbelton ; 
Mr. Alexander M'Coll, late of Berwick, and now of Niagara 
Falls, State of New York ; Mr. James Hamilton, late of 
Largo ; and Mr. James Russel, now of the West United 
Presbyterian Church, Old Kilpatrick. The call by a great 
majority, turned out in favour of Mr. Brown ; and having, 
in due form, been transmitted to the Presbytery of Kelso, 
in whose bounds Mr. Brown then was, and he having 
accepted it, was admitted at Wishaw, by the Presbytery of 
Glasgow, on the 22d December, 1831. 

The congregations which have been more recently formed 
within the bounds of Cambusnethan are those of Wishaw 
Parish Church, the Evangelical Union Church at Stane, the 
Free Church at Cambusnethan, and the Primitive Methodist 
Church and Roman Catholic congregation in Wishaw. 

There are no buildings of very great antiquity in the 
parish. Reference has already been made to the existing 
ruins of the old church in the vale of Clyde, and to the old 



56 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

Tower of Garrion. The original house of Allanton was a 
tower, the greater portion of which required to be taken 
down, when the present mansion was erected, in the year 
1788. A portion of the original building still exists. On 
the lintel of a door, the date 1591 is inscribed, but whether 
this is the date of the erection of the tower is uncertain. 
When Coltness came into the possession of the Steuarts, the 
mansion-house was a little tower-house, containing a vault 
and two rooms, one above the other, with garrets ; but Sir 
James added a kitchen and six fire rooms, before bringing 
his family from Edinburgh to Coltness. The present house 
is comparatively modern, and has been very greatly improved 
and enlarged by the present proprietor. The principal por- 
tion of Wishaw house is of recent erection. The older 
portion appears to have been built in the year 1665. Cam- 
nethan house is one of the finest architectural structures in 
the vale of Clyde, and was erected about forty years ago. 
There is not a house in the Burgh of Wishaw but has been 
erected within the last eighty-two years. 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 57 



$\t Mttxmxh of QUvudan. 



In a Historical Sketch of the Parish of Cambusnethan, 
it has been deemed proper to give historical notices of the 
older and principal families in it. The Steuarts of 
Allaton, on account of the high antiquity of their ancestry, 
are entitled to the first notice. 

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales has several 
Scotch titles, and the title which takes precedence is "Great 
Steward of Scotland." This title was in existence during 
the eleventh century. " Steward " is a Celtic compound. 
41 Sti " denotes a house, and " ward " a keeper. " Steward" 
is of the same import as u seneschal," which signifies the 
senior servant, and is synonomous with our more modern 
term " chamberlain." Thejirst Great Steward of Scotland 
was Walter, who died in the year 1089. The second was 
Allan, who died in the year 1153. The third was Walter, 
who died in the year 1177. The fourth was Allan, who 
died in the year 1204. The fifth was Walter, who died in 
the year 1241. The sixth was Alexander, who died in the 
year 1283. His second son was John, who married Mar- 
garet de Bonkyll, and was then styled " Sir John Steuart 
of Bonkyll." One of the signatures to a communication 



58 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

sent from the Barons of Scotland to Edward 1. in 1290, is, 
11 Alisaundre de Bonkyll." Sir John was slain at the battle 
of Falkirk, in the same engagement in which Sir John the 
Graham fell, 22d July, 1298. Both were interred in the 
burial-ground of Falkirk. The tomb-stone over the grave 
of the latter has been repeatedly renewed, but the stone over 
that of the former seems to be the original one, from its 
highly antique configuration. When the present church at 
Falkirk was rebuilt in the year 1811, the inscription on the 
stone over the grave of Sir John Steuart, having been very 
much effaced by time, was renewed, by simply cutting the 
letters deeper into the body of the stone. It is as follows : — 
Here Lies 

A 

Scottish 

Hero 

Sir 

John 

Steuart 

Who Was 

Killed 

At the 

Battle 

Of 

Falkirk 

22 July 

1298. 

t 

Sir John Steuart, by his marriage with the heiress cf 
Bonkyll, became the father of several sons ; who, in their 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 59 

turn became the founders of the illustrious houses of Dreg- 
horn, Angus, Galloway, Atholl, Traquair, and Buchan. His 
sixth son was Sir Robert Steuart of Daldowie, in Clydesdale, 
the founder of the house of Allanton. Sir Robert had 
extensive possessions around. Rutherglen, and also in the 
county of Renfrew. He fought at the battle of Bannock- 
burn, in the year 1314, under the banner of his kinsman, 
the Lord High Steward of Scotland. He died in the year 
1330. He was succeeded by his son Allan, who married a 
daughter of Douglas of Douglas, commonly known in Scot- 
tish history by the name of u the Black Douglas. '' He was 
bred to arms, and seems to have earned the honours which 
continue to be emblazoned on the escutcheon of his descend- 
ants. In consequence of having displayed great bravery in 
heading a party which stormed the castle of Alnwick, in 
Northumberland, he was sirnamed " Alnwickster." In 
the year 1385, Richard II. invaded Scotland with a very 
large army. Allan Steuart of Daldowie, though then 
upwards of sixty years of age, impelled by his patriotism, 
collected a large body of horsemen in the districts in 
Lanarkshire and Renfrewshire, in which his possessions 
and influence chiefly lay. On his way to join the general 
body of the Scottish army he passed through Cambusnethan, 
where he encountered an advanced party of the English 
army, at a part of the moor of M'Morren, now called Morn- 
ingside. The conflict was a severe one, but the party 
commanded by Allan Steuart was victorious. Allan, 
however, was slain. His body was buried in the chapel of 
Beuskiag, in the vicinity of Morningside, — a religious house 
dependant on the Abbey of Aberbi othic, which house gave 
a name to the district — "the Chapel" — a name which it 



60 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 



' 



continues to bear. Several years ago, when drains were 
being cut, for agricultural improvement, on the marshy- 
portion of the scene of engagement, swords, spears, and 
helmets were found. Some of these memorials of the con- 
flict are, at the present day, carefully preserved in the 
mansion-house of Allanton. The battle gave names to 
places in its immediate vicinity, by which names they con- 
tinue to be known. One of them, " Cathburn," signifies 
the battle burn. " Cathkers," near Allanton house, signifies 
the field eastward of the battle. The whole district was 
then called "Alcathmuir," signifying the muir of Allarfs 
battle; and the stream which waters its southern and west- 
ern boundary was called " Alcath water," signifying the 
water of Allan's battle. This stream has long been vulgarly 
called u Aughter water." 

About forty-five years ago, the late Sir Henry Steuart of 
Allanton, with the view of honouring the memory of his 
heroic ancestor, erected a fountain, near the mansion-house, 
on which is the following inscription : — 

D. M. 

Allani Stevart de Allanton. 

Et Daldvi. Equitis. Banneretti. 

Viri. Egregii. Armis. Agerrimi. 

Ejusdem. qui. insigni. Pugna. 

Apud. Morningside. Clarus. Factus. 

Fons. Sacer, 

V. S. L. A. Faciund. C. An. 1813. H. S. 
XI. Gradus, Distans. Hie. A. Duce. Illo. Fortissimo. 

The hero of Morningside was accompanied by his son — 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 6l 

Allan also by name — who, after performing the funeral 
obsequies over the remains of his parent in the chapel of 
Beuskiag, proceeded with his troop to join the main body 
of the army in repelling the invader. On his return home, 
King Robert II., who was then residing at Lochmaben 
castle, in acknowledgement of his patriotism and bravery, 
conferred on him the honour of Knight Banneret; being 
knighted under the royal standard, which was then regarded 
as the highest military honour which could be received. And 
farther, in acknowledgement of the bravery of his parent, 
who was slain in the engagement at Morningside, he was 
permitted to bear upon his escutcheon the lion-passant of 
England, quartered with a broken spear, surmounted by a 
helmet, with the Scottish lion for supporters — which are 
the armorial bearings of the Steuarts of Allanton to this 
day. The crest is a hand issuing from a coronet, grasping a 
Scotch thistle, with the motto, " Juvat aspera fortes," and 
under the shield, the motto is, " Virtutis in bello premium.' 

Sir Allan appears to have gone to reside in France during 
the time Charles VI. was Dauphin, and to have served under 
that prince. On returning to Scotland, about the year 1421, 
he obtained from the Abbot of Aberbrothic, under a favour- 
able tenure, lands, to a considerable extent, in the moor of 
M'Morren. These lands he thought proper to call "Allan- 
ton, " and from that time he was styled " Sir Allan Steuart, 
of Daldowie and Allanton." He had a partiality for his 
newly-acquired property at Allanton, and came to reside on 
ic. When Baron Hay of Yester became military vassal to 
the Abbot for the whole of the extensive district of M'Mor- 
ren's moor, Sir Allan held his lands, by a similar tenure, 



62 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 






from that nobleman. The original grant of the lands from 
the Abbot was in existence at the commencement of last 
century, when, unfortunately, it and other valuable docu 
ments were destroyed by fire. 

Sir Allan married a French lady while resident in Paris, 
and his eldest son, James, having been born in that city 
was usually sirnamed, u of Paris.'" His fathers had been 
men of war ; but he was a man who loved peace and re 
tirement, and greatly improved his Allanton estate. He 
was succeeded by his son James, who, on account of his 
taste for literature, was sirnamed " the Antiquary." He 
commenced a manuscript narrative of the house of his 
fathers, bringing it down to his own day. This narrative 
has been continued by several of his descendants, from time 
to time, and still exists among the family papers. " The 
Antiquary" died in the year 1489. He was succeeded by 
his second son, Allan. This Allan had two sons — Gavin and 
Adam. To the elder he gave the lands of Daldowie, and 
to the younger the lands of Allanton. Gavin married a 
daughter of James Lockhart of Lee, by whom he had two 
sons : viz., James, who became heir to both his father and 
uncle ; and Allan, who obtained the lands of Garbathill. 
Gavin Steuart died in the year 1557. Allan was immedi- 
ately succeeded by his son Adam, who became Adam Steuart 
of Allanton. He also married into the Lee family. In the 
year 1536, he passed into England on some mission of a 
public or private nature, as appears from a record in the 
Kegister office, of a safe conduct granted to him and six 
persons who accompanied him. He died without issue in 
the year 1574. 






PAEISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 63 

During the life-time of Adam Steuart, the principles of 
the Reformation had gained many friends in Scotland. One 
of the most active agents in the diffusion of these principles, 
especially over the west of Scotland, was the eminent min- 
ister of the gospel, George Wish art, who suffered martyrdom 
at St. Andrews, in the year 1546, at the instigation of 
Cardinal Beaton. Wishart was the intimate friend of 
Adam Steuart, and occasionally found not only a home, 
but a hiding-place from his persecutors, in the tower of 
Allanton. There was a small secret apartment in the old 
tower, formed out of the thickest part of the wall. This 
was Wishart's hiding-place, and that of others who were in 
peril for their religious principles. When Wishart, or any 
other of the persecuted party, sought refuge at Allanton, it 
was so arranged that he arrived during the night; and 
that his being there should be concealed, even from the 
servants. It was necessary, however, that one person 
should be in the secret, so as the better to aid the family in 
the successful concealment of their friends. The confidant 
on this occasion was a worthy tailor, whose professional 
services were always in requisition when the secret chamber 
required to be occupied. This chamber was entered by a 
low door, against which the tailor placed his back when 
plying his needle. He was a most diligent workman — early 
and late — not even taking a stroll during meal hours. His 
food was carried to him while prosecuting his craft. It was 
sent from the family table ; and the servants had many a 
laugh among themselves, and cracked their jokes over the 
voracious appetite of the tailor, as he was understood by 
them to consume as much food at one meal as might serve 
two persons. They required to be kept ignorant that 
another shared with him, in his repasts. 



G4 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

James Steuart of Allanton, who was bora in the year 
1537, succeeded to his uncle and father in the estates of 
Allanton and Daldowie. By a precept of James, Earl of 
Arran, dated at the palace of Linlithgow in August, 1679, 
he is designed great-grandson of David Tait of Earnock, in 
which lands he was then infeft. In the year 1598, a charter 
passed the Great Seal in his favour, and that of his son 
James, of the lands of Daldowie. He is understood to have 
been an intimate friend of John Knox ; to have admired 
his character ; and zealously to have promoted the cause of 
the Eeformation in Scotland. It is very likely that Knox 
became the occasion of introducing him to the Earl of Argyle 
and Kegent Moray: In the family papers he is styled 
James " of Langside," from his having been in the engage- 
ment at Langside, in which Queen Mary was finally defeated. 
During the earlier part of that engagement the Queen's forces 
were victorious ; and having dispersed the King's cavalry? 
were proceeding to throw the foot likewise into confusion, 
who were drawn up on Langside hill. James Steuart on 
that occasion commanded a troop of horse, and on perceiv- 
ing the movement of the vanguard of the Queens army, 
vigorously repulsed them before they had reached the sum- 
mit of the hill ; and, in so doing, turned the tide of battle, 
and greatly contributed to the victory which was that day 
achieved. Lords Hamilton and Seton were on the Queen's 
side, and were so enraged at Steuart of Allanton, on account 
of the share which he had in the defeat of the Queen, that 
they actually threatened to pull down his house about his 
ears. He returned to Allanton to enjoy repose, and improve 
his estate. About a dozen of very fine old ash trees, in 
front of the present mansion-house at Allanton, were planted 
by him, after the battle of Langside, in the year 1563. 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 65 

James " of Langside " had two sons, the elder of whom 
predeceased his father, but left issue. Grief, at the loss of 
his son, so preyed upon him, that he died in the year 1608, 
and was succeeded by his grandson, Sir Walter, who was 
born in the year 1606. Sir Walter's younger brother, 
James, became the first Sir James Steuart of Coltness. 
During Sir Walter's minority, the lands of Daldowie, 
which had been in the possession of his ancestors for more 
than three hundred years, were sold, to clear off encum- 
brances. In the year 1653, he purchased for his brother 
the lands of Coltness, from Hamilton of Udstom He was 
married to the sister of the first Lord Belhaven, and had 
a large family. The heir to the estate, a very promising 
young man, was at the battle of Dunbar, under General 
Leslie, in the year 1650, when Cromwell gained his signal 
victory. The fatigues of that campaign overpowered young 
Steuart, and he sank under them. 

When Cromwell, during that campaign, was returning 
from Glasgow to Edinburgh, he passed through Cambus- 
nethan, and paid a visit to Allanton house. Sir Walter 
thought fit to keep out of the way, but his lady remained, 
and shewed Cromwell great hospitality. Before partaking 
of the refreshments set before him, he offered up a prayer, 
with such fervency as greatly to impress the lady of Allanton 
with a sense of the Protector's piety. A delicate boy re- 
mained at home with his mother, on the occasion. He was 
particularly attracted by the hilt of Cromwell's sword, and 
ventured to examine it. On perceiving this, Cromwell clap- 
ped him on the head, and called him u my little captain." 
From that day he was called "Captain" Steuart. Sir 

E 



66 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

Walter died in the year 1672. He was the person who 
gave so much trouble to the proprietor of Cam'nethan, when 
about to bury his child " in the choir" of the old kirk — who 
succeeded in having a new church erected at Greenhead, 
and who claimed, and obtained, the front seat of the aisle 
gallery. 

He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, William, 
who was born in the year 1640. William married his 
cousin, daughter of Sir James Steuart of Coltness. In con- 
sequence of his connexion with the Coltness family, he 
suffered severely during the persecuting period, as will be 
fully noticed in its proper place. The fines imposed on him 
were very heavy, but they were generously remitted by 
James II. in the year 1687. The King offered to create 
him a baronet ; but not esteeming the title as of great value, 
he declined it, esteeming the title of knight banneret, con- 
ferred by the hands of Robert II. on his ancestor, as much 
more honourable. The baronetcy on this occasion was 
conferred on his cousin, Sir Robert Steuart of Allanbank. 
He died in the year 1700, and was succeeded by his son, 
James, who died in the year 1762. He, again, was succeeded 
by his son, James — the sixth of that name in the ancestry — 
who married the daughter of Henry Steuart Barclay of 
Colernie, in Fife. He was a superior scholar and an eminent 
agriculturist; and as enclosing and planting were then 
becoming popular in Scotland, he thereby greatly improved 
the amenity and value of his estate. 

The son and heir of the sixth James Steuart of Allanton 
was Henry, who was born on the 20th October, 1759. He 



PARISH OP CAMBUSNETHAN. 67 

very successfully studied the transplanting of large trees, as 
the lawn and pleasure grounds around Allanton house fully 
attest. He was a gentlemen of such varied scholarship as 
to obtain the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws, besides 
being enrolled a Fellow of the Koyal Society, and of the 
Antiquarian Society of Edinburgh. In the year 1787, he 
married Lillias, daughter of Hugh Seton, Esquire of Touch, 
in the county of Stirling ; and about the same time erected 
the present mansion-house, as the old Tower of Allanton 
was much decayed. His daughter, Elisabeth-Margaret, his 
sole surviving child, became hi3 heiress. In the year 1812, 
she married Reginald Macdonald, Esquire of Staffa, by whom 
she had three sons and two daughters. Her father was 
created a Baronet in May, 1814, with remainder to his son- 
in-law, Reginald Macdonald, Esquire, who, on the decease 
of Sir Henry, became second Baronet. He died in the year 
1838, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Henry- James 
Seton-Steuart, the present Baronet, who, in the year 1852, 
married Elisabeth, eldest daughter of Robert Montgomery, 
Esquire, younger son of Sir James Montgomery, Baronet of 
Stanhope. 

In the year 1835, Elisabeth-Margaret, the only surviving 
child of the first Sir Henry, and heiress of Allanton, added the 
surname of Seton to her own ; as in that year she suc- 
ceeded, as sole heiress, in right of her mother, to the estate 
of Touch- Seton in the county of Stirling. She is, conse- 
quently, the representative of one of the oldest and most 
honourable families in the kingdom. The Setons can trace 
their origin to Dougal Seton, who lived in the reign of 
Alexander I. of Scotland, in the twelfth century. The 



68 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

Setons have been distinguished in Scotland during the pro 
tracted civil conflicts with England. William, the descend- 
ant of Dougal, was created Baron de Gordon by Robert III., 
and from him descended Alexander, who was created Mar- 
quess of Huntly in the year 1449. The Marquess had a son 
who bore his father's name — Alexander — from whom the 
Setons of Touch are lineally descended. Archibald, the 
late proprietor of Touch, was the ninth in descent from the 
first Marquess of Huntly. He was succeeded by his sister, 
Barbara, who dying without issue, the property devolved 
upon his niece, now Lady Seton-Steuart of Allanton. Her 
ladyship is entitled, by her descent, to be styled u Baroness 
de Gordon ;" and has succeeded to the office of heritable 
armour-bearer to Her Majesty, and squire of the royal body 
— a title which has been in the family of Seton. of Touch 
for centuries ; there being charters to this effect extant prior 
to the year 1488. 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 69 



Utxxnxts of Coltes. 



As a branch of the Allanton family, the Steuarts of Coltness 
are entitled to our notice. 

By referring to our notices of the Steuarts of Allanton, 
it will be observed that James, " of Langside," was suc- 
ceeded by his grandson, Walter. Walter had a brother 
two years younger than himself — born in the year 1608 — 
whose name was James. They were educated at the 
grammar school of Lanark. There is a tradition, that, on 
returning from a stroll through Cartland Crags, on a Satur- 
day afternoon, with their young cousin of Westshield, and 
other boys, they were met by a spae-wife. She drew herself 
up into an oracular attitude and expression, and, pointing 
her skiny fingers towards one of the boys, said : " Ye're to 
be the laird o' Allanton." Pointing to another boy, she 
said : " Ye're to be the laird o' Westshield." She then 
paused, to the disappointment especially of James, the 
younger brother of Walter of Allanton. Hovever, from an 
anxiety to know T his own fortune, from the lips of one who 
had prognosticated good to others, he asked her, "And 
what am I to be ?" " You ! my bairn !" she replied, " ye're 
to be the laird o' God's blessing, and ye're ain hand winning 



70 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

and ye'll maybe some clay help to gi'e the lairds a lift." 
This oracle, like others of its class, came to be talked of 
much oftener after its fulfilment than before it ; as James 
became a prosperous, wealthy, honourable person. In his 
youth he went to Edinburgh, to push his fortune. When 
he left Allanton house, probably with limited resources and 
prospects, he, nevertheless, carried with him the fear of the 
Lord; and there can be no doubt, that the share which he 
had of "the true riches" became the foundation of his 
subsequent worldly wealth, and worldly honours. His 
prosperity must have been rapid and substantial, as in the 
year 1630 — when only in his twenty-second year — he 
thought fit to enter into the married state. The annalist of 
the Sommervilles of Cam'nethan, in alluding to this marriage 
connexion, does so in contemptuous terms — as he too fre- 
quently does when alluding to the Steuarts. " Her faither," 
says he, " keepit a worsted chop in the Luckenbooths." 
The "Luckenbooths" were, at that time, the principal 
places of business for the Edinburgh merchants ; and, as 
the merchants of that day required to keep a stock of 
everything, for their customers, the whole truth about the 
"faither's" business is not told, unless it is mentioned that, 
besides "worsted," he had an ample supply of "silks and 
satins." The young lady to whom James Steuart gave his 
hand and heart, was Anne Hope, daughter of Henry Hope, 
the brother of Sir Thomas Hope of Craighall, Lord Advocate 
of Scotland. The connexion was highly respectable. James 
Steuart contracted a second marriage with the only daughter 
of David M'Culloch of Goodtrees, near Edinburgh, through 
whom he acquired that estate. This was in the year 1646, 
and the position, and worth of character which he had by 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 71 

that time acquired, in public estimation, may be inferred from 
the circumstance of his having been provost of Edinburgh 
from 1648 till 1660. In 1650, he, along with the Marquess 
of Argyle and the Earl of Eglinton, held a conference with 
Cromwell on Bruntsfield-links. He was at the same time 
Commissary-General of the army which Cromwell had 
defeated that year at Dunbar. He took an active part in 
the restoration of Charles II., as will be detailed in the next 
lecture ; but, in consequence of his Whig principles, and 
adherence to the covenants, was not only deprived of his 
office of provost, but very heavily fined and subjected to 
long imprisonment. The particulars of these sufferings will 
also be given in the next lecture. During his provostship 
he was knighted ; and, by his influence, the same honour 
was conferred on his brother, Walter, of Allanton. The 
lands of West Carbarns, or Kirkfield, in Cambusnethan, had 
been purchased by him from Sommerville of Cam'nethan, and 
his first title was, " Sir James Steuart of Kirkfield." The 
Coltness estate, which had also at one time been a portion 
of the large barony of Cam'nethan, was then the property 
of John Hamilton of Udston. About the year 1653, the 
Coltness estate was purchased by Sir James Steuart. 

By his marriage with Miss Hope, Sir James had seven 
sons and one daughetr, Margaret by name, married to her 
cousin, William Steuart of Allanton. His eldest son was 
Thomas. His third son became Walter Steuart of West- 
burn, in East Lothian, by marriage with the heiress. His 
fourth son became Sir James Steuart of Goodtrees. The 
fifth and sixth were unmarried. The seventh became Sir 
Robert Steuart of Allanbank. Sir James died in the year 



72 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

1(581, in the 73d year of his age, after having borne an 
honourable testimony to the truth, and to the principles of 
the covenants, on account of which he so severely suffered. 

He was succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas, who was 
born in 1631, and became the first Baronet in the family, 
having been invested with this honour in the year 1693. 
He married into the family of Sir John Elliot, and by his 
lady had a family of nine sons and three daughters. He 
was an eminently pious man, as well as a zealous Presby- 
terian. The scoffers of his day nicknamed him u Gospel 
Coltness." In consequence of the countenance which he had 
given to the covenanters at Bothwell Bridge, by supplying 
them with food, he had to avail himself of the hiding-place 
in the wall of Allanton house, guarded by the faithful tailor, 
whose services happened to be always needed at Allanton 
house, when the hiding-place required to be occupied. He 
subsequently fled to Holland, as his estates had been confis- 
cated and gi' T en to the Earl of Arran, who afterwards became 
Duke of Hamilton. He remained in Holland till the year 
1687 — the year in which James II. granted indulgence to 
the banished to return home ; and, through the kind ser- 
vices of William Penn, the distinguished quaker, he obtained 
a pardon. In the year 1689, he represented North Berwick 
in the convention of estates, and again in the first Parlia- 
ment of King William, in 1690. He was the first to propose 
the abolition of Episcopacy; and the well-known Act for 
regulating the Church of Scotland was framed and proposed 
by him. He was knighted by the commissioner on that 
occasion, and in 1693 created a Baronet. Soon after this 
his estate was restored, and he obtained a grant of £200. 



PAKISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 73 

sterling annually, payable out of the revenues of the Arch- 
bishopric of Glasgow, as a compensation for the losses which 
he had sustained during his forfeiture. He died in the year 
1698. 

Sir Thomas was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir David, 
who was born in the year 1G56, and married into the family 
of Wygateshaw, but had no family. He accompanied his 
father to Holland, in his banishment, and was led, in the 
year 1685, to join the Earl of Argyle in his unfortunate, 
and unsuccessful, descent on Scotland. The Earl was be- 
headed at the cross of Edinburgh, and Sir David was 
condemned to be executed. He was reprieved, and after- 
wards pardoned. As he had no family, he sold the Coltness 
estate, in the year 1712, to his uncle, Sir James Steuart of 
Goodtrees, Lord Advocate for Scotland. He died in the 
year 1723. 

Sir David was succeeded in his title by his uncle, Sir 
James Steuart of Goodtrees, then the proprietor of Coltness. 
The Goodtrees branch, as already mentioned, originated in 
the marriage of Walter, third son of the first Sir James, 
with the heiress of Goodtrees. The fourth son of this mar- 
riage — Sir James — succeeded to the Goodtrees estate. He 
was bred to the bar, and became an able lawyer. In the 
year 1660, though only twenty- five years of age, he distin- 
guished himself by his able defence of his father, then being 
prosecuted by the government — a defence which so exas- 
perated the heads of the government, that the young advo- 
cate had to betake himself to a hiding-place. In the year 
1683, he, along with his relative, Sir William Denham of 



74 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

Wcstshield, was condemned, and his estate forfeited. Two 
years afterwards, be was sentenced to be executed when- 
ever found. He was also an occupant of the hiding-place 
at Allanton house, and the faithful tailor did not in his case, 
or in any other, betray trust. At one period he found refuge 
in London, and maintained himself in rather a singular man- 
ner. He advertised to give written opinions on difficult law 
cases, at half the usual fee — -five shillings — the usual fee 
then being half-a-guinea. His solutions were so profound, 
and ingenious, as to obtain him large employment. The 
desire to find out this solver of legal difficulties became so 
strong, as to oblige him, to prevent discovery, to return to 
Scotland. He subsequently went to Holland, and obtained 
an introduction to the Prince of Orange. He became Lord 
Advocate under William III., and enjoyed the same office 
under Queen Anne. By his first marriage he had one son 
— James by name — who succeeded him. By his second 
marriage, he had two sons, the elder of whom was Henry 
Steuart Barclay of Colernie, in Fife, — one of the ancestors 
of the present Sir Henry Steuart of Allanton. In the year 
1712, he purchased the estate of Coltness from Sir David. 
He died in the year 1713. 

He was succeeded by his son, Sir James Steuart of 
Goodtrees and Coltness, who was born in 1681, and had 
married into the family of Sir Hugh Dalrymple of North 
Berwick, president of the Court of Session. Sir James was 
also bred to the bar, and became as distinguished for his 
Whig principles — which had been so honourably maintained 
by his ancestors — as by his legal talents. In the year 1705 
he was created a Baronet — in 1709 he became Solicitor- 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 75 

General for Scotland — and in 1713 a representative in Par- 
liament for the county of Midlothian. He had three sons, 
the youngest of whom succeeded him. He had nine daugh- 
ters. The eldest of them was the grandmother of the late 
Admiral Sir Philip Durham. The second, married Henry- 
David, the Earl of Buchan. The third, married Alexander 
Murray of Cringletie. The other daughters died young, 
and unmarried. Sir James died in the year 1727. 

He was succeeded by his son, Sir James, who was born 
in 1713. Like his father and grandfather, he was bred to 
the bar ; but surpassed them both in vigour, and variety of 
talent. Indeed, but for the part he was led to adopt in 
connexion with the Pretender, in the year 1745, there is no 
doubt he would have earned the highest honours of the legal 
profession in Scotland. Soon after entering on the legal 
profession, he went on a tour to the continent. This 
brought him into connexion with several of the exiled 
Jacobite chiefs. His family had been long attached to the 
principles of the Whigs, but he was induced to embrace the 
cause of dethroned royalty. When in Rome he was intro- 
duced to Prince Charles Steuart ; and the reception was so 
courteous, that the youthful Sir James of Coltness was 
entirely fascinated by it. He returned to Scotland in 1740, 
and in 1743 married Lady Frances Wemyss, eldest daughter 
of the Earl of Wemyss. In the year 1745 " Prince Charlie" 
was holding levees, and receiving adherents, in Holyrood 
house. Lord Elcho, the brother-in-law of Sir James, was 
attached to the Prince, and devised a plan of having Sir 
James, and the Earl of Buchan, introduced to the Prince. 
The terms were, that they were not by that introduction to 



76 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 






be regarded as pledged to join his standard. The Prince 
declined to receive them, on these terms. The Earl of 
Buchan retired, but Sir James instantly offered his services 
to the young Chevalier. This led to his being appointed on 
an embassy to the court of France, otherwise he might have 
been on the fatal field of Culloden, or his head been laid on the 
fatal block. Sir James, fortunately, was not attainted; but 
the step which he had taken involved him in consequences 
which kept him an exile for nearly twenty years. In the 
year 1762, when residing at Spa, and during the war with 
France, he was suspected of being a spy, in the pay of the 
British government. He was seized — treated as a state 
prisoner — and confined for sixteen months in the fortress of 
Charlemont. On his release, flattering prospects were held 
out to him, on condition of his entering the French service. 
The reply which he returned to the proposal — though we 
had known nothing else of him — enables us to estimate the 
man. " Sir, what I have suffered from my own nation, I 
merited by my misconduct ; what I have suffered from yours, 
was as unjust as it was unwarrantable, and should never 
have been inflicted. I would as soon renounce my God, as 
I would relinquish my country 1" 

The prolonged residence of Sir James on the continent 
was occupied in study, and led to the publication of several 
works on finance, together with " A Defence of Sir Isaac 
Newton's Chronology." At the peace of Paris, in the year 
1763, and by the kind entreaties of Lord Barrington, and 
Lady Mary Wortley Montague, King George III. was 
induced to grant a pardon to Sir James, and allow him to 
return home. In 1771, by a deed under the Great Seal, 



PAKISH OF CA.MBUSNETHAN. 77 

this pardon, and his restoration to the peaceful possession of 
his estates were confirmed. The remaining seventeen years 
of his life were spent in literary and scientific pursuits. In 
the retirement of Coltness he put the finishing hand to his 
great work, " An Inquiry into the Principles of Political 
Economy," which gained for him the title of " the father of 
Political economy in Scotland." It appeared in two quarto 
volumes, from the press of the Messrs. Miller and Cadell of 
Edinburgh, who gave him £200. for the copyright. It 
appeared nine years before Adam Smith published his 
u Wealth of Nations." Smith has borrowed largely from 
the writings of Sir James, and without acknowledgement ; 
and it remains a blemish on Adam Smith's literary charac- 
ter, that he should have drawn so much from the sentiments 
of a writer of whom he was accustomed to speak disparag- 
ingly. Sir James died on the 26th November, 1780, and 
was buried in the tomb of his forefathers, at Cambusnethan 
old church -yard. 

There is an arbour near Coltness house which Sir James 
occupied for study, and in which he spent many of his 
happiest hours of retirement, both before his exile and after 
his return home. On the wall, above the seat, a chrysalis 
and two butterflies, emblems of immortality, have been 
sculptured in alto-rillevo. Below them, the following in- 
scription, on a marble slab, was inserted in the year 1815 : — 

THE FAVOURITE SEAT OF 

SIR JAMES AND LADY FRANCES STEUART. 

Inscribed to their Memory, 1815. 

Blest and united by the ties that bind 
The generous spirit, and the virtuous mind, 



78 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

to their loved homes the exiles came at last, 
Courted this safe retreat, and smiled on perils past. 

Here, arm in arm, enjoying and enjoyed, 

Musing on life, no moment misemployed, 

The pilgrims paused, to hail the happier shore, 

Where love is ever young, and virtue weeps no more. 

There are other rather interesting and curious associations 
connected with this arbour. One of the early and intimate 
associates of Sir James was Mr. Alexander Trotter of 
Midlothian. Mr. Trotter died in early life ; and on his 
death-bed made a promise to Sir James, that, if possible, 
he would, after his decease, pay him a visit in the arbour, 
which had been so often the scene of their retired devotions 
and meditations. He fixed on the hour of noon as the time 
for the interview ; and, to prevent mistake, that he would 
appear in the dress which he usually wore. Sir James 
attached such importance to this promise, that every day 
thereafter, and even under the debilities of age, he was 
found at mid-day in the arbour, expecting the promised visit. 
He always returned home disappointed, but consoled him- 
self by believing that we know so little of "the other world," 
as not to be justified, in saying, that Mr. Trotter's promised 
visit was one impossible for him to fulfil. This circumstance 
became the foundation of a popular ballad, to be obtained 
at the beginning of this century, from the budget of any 
travelling packman, entitled, " The Laird o' Coul's Ghost/' 

Sir James had an only son and child, the late Sir James 
Steuart, who was born in the year 1744, and died at Chel- 
tenham, on the 5th August, 1839, in the 95th year of his 
age, the oldest officer at that time in the British army. He 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 7\) 

was the last of his illustrious house — a house which, for two 
centuries, furnished a series of families distinguished for 
learning, patriotism, and piety. They have been an honour 
to their country; and the parish of Cambusnethan may feel 
proud to enrol them on the list of her worthies. 



80 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 



ffilje (fom'uxiljmt Estate. 



The changes through which the Cam'nethan Estate has 
passed during the last six hundred years have been numer- 
ous, and are deserving of being enrolled among the Antiqui- 
ties of the parish. 

It has already been mentioned that, about the beginning 
of the twelfth century, the barony of Cambusnethan belonged 
to William Finnemund, and subsequently passed into the 
possession of Rudolph de Cler. In the collection of royal 
charters made by a late Earl of Haddington, and usually 
known as the " Haddington Collection," there is one by 
King Robert L, granting the barony of Cambusnethan to 
Sir Robert Baird, on a reddendo of ten chalders of wheat, 
and ten of barley, payable yearly at Rutherglen. This was 
toward the beginning of the thirteenth century. About this 
time Walter Murray of Tuliibardine married Margaret le 
Baird of Cambusnethan. Sir Robert Baird erected at 
Cam'nethan a large square tower, of four stories, which 
remained entire till about the year 1661, and up to that 
time was called " Baird's Tower." It is probable that the 
Baron of Cambusnethan was among the number who swore 
fealty to Edward I. at Norham castle ; and as, by having 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 81 

done so, he must have favoured the interests of Baliol, who 
was Edward's nominee to the Scottish crown, rather than 
those of Bruce, he must, to some extent, have been a marked 
and suspected man by the patriots of Scotland. The Bairds 
were, at this time, a distinguished and formidable family. 
When Edward III. was preparing to invade Scotland, it is 
very likely that the Bairds were committed to rally around 
his standard. This at least is certain, that, at a Parliament 
held at Perth, in the year 1340, they were declared guilty 
of treason to the Scottish crown — their estates were forfeited 
to the crown — and themselves put to death. Thus termin- 
ated the history of the Bairds of Cambusnethan. 

About the year 1345, King David Bruce, better known 
m Scottish history as David II., gave a donation of the 
barony of Cambusnethan to Sir John Edmonston. The 
barony then held blenche of the crown, on condition of the 
proprietor being in readiness, when the King passed through 
his estate, to present to him a pair of gilded spurs ; and 
two gilded spurs are the reddendo by which the barony still 
holds of the crown. Sir John Edmonston had an only 
daughter, who was heiress to the barony. In October, 
1372, John, eldest son of the then Baron of Carnwath, 
having formed the acquaintanceship of the heiress of Cam- 
busnethan, married her. He became the sixth Baron of 
Linton, in Roxburghshire ; the third Baron of Carnwath ; 
and the first Baron of Cambusnethan, of the Sommerville 
line. At this period, the barony of Cambusnethan was so 
very extensive as to include almost the whole of the parfsh 
of Cambusnethan, quoad civilia. The disponing of sundry 
portions of this once large estate piece- meal, till, after the 



82 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

lapse of 264 years, it entirely passed out of the hands of 
the Sonimervilles, forms a somewhat tedious story. Space 
can be afforded for a notice of only a few particulars. In 
the year 1427, Sir William Hay of Yester married a daugh- 
ter of the Baron of Cambusnethan, and through her obtained 
lands situated in a central district of the parish. Sir Robert 
Logan of Restalrig married another daughter, and through 
her obtained the lands of Heatheryhill and Fimmington. 
The lands of " Fimmington" embrace the site of the original 
town of Wishaw, and may properly be described as situated 
on the north-east side of Main Street, as far up as the 
property of the Reformed Presbyterian Congregation ; and 
on the south-west side of said street, from the Glasgow road 
upwards toward the cross ; and the lands westward, from 
the cross till bounded by Beltonfoot Street. The lands of 
Fimmington were afterwards resigned by him in favour of 
Sir John of Quothquan. , Soon after this, the Baron of 
Cambusnethan disponed the lands of Coltness to Logan of 
Restalrig, and by Logan they were subsequently disponed 
to Hamilton of Udston. 

In April, 1520, the Baron of Cambusnethan forfeited his 
lands and title. At that time the provostship of Edinburgh 
was deemed an object worth contending for, and enjoying, 
even by the nobles of Scotland. The Earls of Angus and 
of Arran were, in the year above mentioned, competitors 
for the civic honours of the metropolis. The Earl of Arran 
was successful. The Baron of Cambusnethan had joined 
the party in favour of the Earl of Angus, and felt so incensed 
by defeat, as actually to assault the Earl of Arran on the 
High Street of Edinburgh, and forcibly drive him and his 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 83 

friends from the city, and for a time to retain possession of 
it. This daring outrage was the occasion of his forfeiture, 
and banishment. On the 19th November, 1524, James V., 
by Act of Parliament, gave the barony of Cambusnethan, 
with the tower and fortalice, to James Hamilton of Fyneart. 
Hamilton of Fyneart belonged to the Douglas family, and 
was an extensive proprietor in Clydesdale. He erected 
Craignethan Castle. About twenty years afterwards, Som- 
merville was restored to his title and estates. 

In briefly noticing how the large estate of Cambusnethan 
gradually passed away from the Sommervilles, it may be 
mentioned, that the lands of Crindledyke and Branchelburn 
were disponed to the laird of Lauchop — the lands of Green- 
head to Koberton of Earnock — the lands of Wishaw, Stane, 
and Watstein, to Hamilton of Udston — the lands of Mur- 
rays and Muiredge to Matthew Steuart — the Overtown of 
Cam'nethan to Sir John Hamilton of Biel — the Nethermains 
of Cam'nethan, Garrion-mill, Coltness-mili and town, to 
Steuart of Coltness — the Overmains of Cam'nethan, Nether- 
ton, and the lands of Green, to Patrick Hamilton, bailie in 
Hamilton : and, in 1649, so very impoverished had the 
Baron of Cam'nethan become, that he sold the manor-house 
and adjoining lands — the only portion of the estate which 
he had managed to retain— to his relative, Sommerville of 
Drum. It was Sommerville of Drum who had the quarrel 
with Allanton, and the Presbytery of Hamilton, about his 
right to bury " in the choir," and who resisted, as long as 
he could, the erection of a new church on the lands of 
Greenhead. The last Baron of Cam'nethan, of the Som- 
merville line, died at Edinburgh in 1659, and was buried in 



84 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

Greyfriar's church-yard, little respected by his relatives, a3 
he had squandered his estate, and had nothing to leave to 
them. Sommerville of Drum seems to have kept the estate 
only twelve years, as he disponed it, in the year 1661, to 
Sir John Harper, who was then Sheriff-depute of the county. 
Baird's tower, and the buildings which the earlier Barons 
Sommerville had clustered around it, were so seriously 
injured, by the decaying hand of time, when Sir John 
Harper bought the estate, that he found it necessary to take 
them entirely down, and on their site to erect a stately 
mansion, which, after standing for about 160 years, was 
unfortunately burned down. Upon the death of Sir John 
Harper, the property came into the possession of Lockhart 
of Castlehill, with whose descendants it has since continued. 

When Robert Bruce was dying, in the year 1329, he 
charged his faithful servant, Sir James Douglas, that, as 
soon as he was dead, he should take his heart out of his 
body and cause it to be embalmed, and, taking out of the 
royal treasure what was needful for the due execution of the 
royal will, proceed with a becoming retinue to Palestine, 
and deposit the heart in the holy sepulchre of our Saviour, 
at Jerusalem, Sir James executed the preliminary instruc- 
tions of his royal master. He set sail for Palestine, with a 
princely retinue. On sailing along the coast of Spain, he 
landed at Seville ; and, learning that the King of Spain 
was then at war with the Moors, he seems to have forgotten 
the object of his mission, as he joined the Spanish army, to 
fight against the infidels. He had the embalmed heart of 
Bruce locked to his body. In one of the engagements with 
the Moors he was wounded, and many of the brave Scottish 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 85 

knights who accompanied him were slain. On discovering 
that he had been wounded, he took from his neck the sacred 
charge entrusted to him, and throwing the silver casket 
before him on the battle field, exclaimed : " Onward, thou 
noble heart, as thou ever wert wont to do. Douglas shall 
follow thee, or die !" He then turned to rescue Sir William 
Saint Clair of Roslin, whom he saw in jeopardy ; but while 
attempting it, he fell under the sabres of his enemies. Next 
day, the silver casket containing the heart of Bruce, and the 
body of Douglas, were found on the field ; and the surviving 
Scottish knights, having claimed both, immediately consulted 
how they should then act. They resolved to desist from 
the mission to Palestine, as their leader had fallen, and the 
vow he had taken to the dying King could not now be 
fulfilled ; and, to return to Scotland. They brought the 
heart, and the body of "the Good Sir James" with them. 
The heart was ultimately deposited near the altar of the 
Abbey of Melrose, and the body of Sir James in the tomb 
of his fathers at Douglas. 

One of the Scottish knights who accompanied Sir James 
Douglas on his mission to Palestine, was Sir Simon Locard 
of Lee — a name of early distinction, and of an antiquity 
which carries us back to the reign of David I. Sir Simon 
was spared to return to Scotland with the heart of Bruce, 
and from this circumstance was induced to change his 
name from Locard to Lockheart — to assume a heart within 
a lock as part of his armorial bearings, and the following 
motto : " Corda serrata pando." Following the descent 
from Sir Simon, we come to Sir Allan Lockhart, who was 
slain in the battle of Pinkie, in the year 1547, fighting for 



SG HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

Queen Mary. Sir Allan's grandson, James, was knighted 
by James VI. ; whose son, Sir James, became a Lord of 
the Court of Session, and, in the reign of Charles I., Lord- 
Justice-Clerk, under the title of Lord Lee. Lord Lee had 
several sons. The third was Sir John Lockhart of Castle- 
hill, who, by Charles II., was appointed a Senator of the 
College of Justice, and a Lord of Justiciary. Sir John 
Lockhart of Castlehill had an only daughter, who was his 
heiress. She married Sir John Sinclair, Baronet of Steven- 
son, and had issue. The second son of this marriage, John 
Sinclair, succeeded to the Castlehill title and estates, on 
which account he assumed the surname of Lockhart. He 
was the progenitor of the present proprietor of Cam'nethan 
estate, James Sinclair Lockhart, Esquire of Castlehill. 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 87 



pjemoir of % gdjjata BzmQt. 



We shall conclude our Sketches of the Antiquities of the 
parish with a Memoir of the Belhaven Peerage. 

When James VI. succeeded to the crown of England, his 
eldest son, Henry, then in his ninth year, became Prince of 
Wales. Sir Robert Douglas of Spot, in the county of 
Haddington, became page of honour to the Prince, and 
afterwards Master of the Horse. On the death of the 
Prince of Wales, he became one of the Lords of the Koyal 
bed-chamber — an office which was continued to him by 
Charles I. Sir James Balfour, Lord Lyon, King-at-Arms 
under Charles I., mentions in his "Annals of Scotland," 
that " Charles I., to honour his coronation, creatted 1 Mar- 
quesse, 10 Earles, 2 Viscounts, and 8 Lordes, on the 17 
Junij, 1633." One of the Viscounts was u Sir Robert 
Douglas of Spote, knight, creatted Viscount Belheauen, 
Lord Douglas of Spote." Balfour has the following notice 
of the death of Viscount Belhaven, in the year 1639 : — 
" Obitts, this zeire, of eminent personages, wer, first, in the 
mounthe of Januarij, 1639, Robert Douglas, Wiscount 
Belheauen, sometyme Master of the Horses to Henry, Prince 
of Wales, quho departed this lyffe at his dwelling-house, 



88 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

neire Glasgow, the 5 day of this mounthe, to quhosse mem- 
orey his heires lies erected a staitly monument of whyte 
marble in the Abey Churche of Holyrudhouse." The house 
which belonged to Viscount Belhaven, and in which he 
died, was in Gorbals, Glasgow. It still exists ; a fine old 
baronial mansion, on the south-east side of Main Street. 
Viscount Belhaven left no issue, and the title became 
extinct. 

We shall now give a sketch of the present peerage, and 
of the ancestry of the present Lord Belhaven. In tracing 
back the ancestry, we must go as far as the commencement 
of the fourteenth century. About the year 1300, King 
Robert created the first Lord Cadzow, the founder of the 
house of Hamilton. On the 28th June, 1445, the sixth 
Lord Cadzow was created Lord Hamilton. The second 
Lord Hamilton was created Earl of Arran, on the 10th 
August, 1503. A brother of the first Earl of Arran was 
Sir John Hamilton of Broomhill, who married the heiress of 
Hamilton of Udston. He died about the year 1500. The 
offspring of this marriage was three sons. The eldest son 
became John Hamilton of Coltness — the second, by his 
marriage with the heiress of Barncleuth, became Sir James 
Hamilton of Barncleuth — and the third son became William 
Hamilton of Wishaw. It was the Barncleuth branch which 
furnished the first Lord Belhaven, who was Sir John 
Hamilton of Biel, and was the great-grandson of Sir John 
Hamilton of Broomhill, the brother of the first Earl of 
Arran. The Hamilton family were warmly attached to the 
person and cause of Charles I. When the monarch had 
openly proclaimed war against his English Parliament, he 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 89 

had ardent supporters in his Scottish subjects. On one 
occasion, a large body of horse were collected in Scotland, 
and were placed under the command of Sir John Hamilton. 
They marched towards England. They went thither by 
way of Berwick. On approaching the Scotch gate of that 
old, and still walled border town, the advanced guard of the 
troop halted. Sir John instantly rode up, and enquired 
into the occasion of their having halted. On being informed 
that they had hesitated to enter the gate, till they had 
consulted, whether they should first ask permission from 
the Governor of the town, and obtain it, Sir John at once 
said, " Ride through," and the order was obeyed. Sir John 
displayed great valour in battle, as well as devotedness to 
his King ; and, in acknowledgement of both, the Sovereign 
created him Lord Belhaven and Stenton, on the 15th 
December, 1647. In token of his bravery, he was empow- 
ered to carry a sword on his escutcheon, and to have horses 
for his supporters. The crest is a horse's head, couped 
and bridled, with the motto, " Ride through ;" which motto 
was selected, because these were the words which he had 
uttered when ordering his troop to enter the gate of Ber- 
wick — words which were by the monarch deemed indicative 
of the prompt decision to which Lord Belhaven came, on 
the occasion referred to. 

The first Lord Belhaven married Margaret, daughter of 
James, Marquess of Hamilton, and had a family of three 
daughters. He resided at Barncleuth, and constructed the 
beautiful terraced gardens there, which to this day attract 
so many visitors. He had a taste for gardening, and very 
much improved it by his occasional visits to Holland, which 



90 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 



I 



occasioned the introduction of the Dutch style, the promi- 
nent feature of the gardens to the present day. During the 
Commonwealth, when heavy fines were imposed on all who 
had defended the cause of Charles L, Lord Belhaven was 
among the number on whom the impost fell very heavily. 
To avoid payment, he determined to go out of the way for 
a time. His intention was to live retired in England; 
concluding that concealment might be better effected there, 
than in Scotland. Having communicated his designs to 
Lady Belhaven, who was to remain at Barncleuth, he took 
with him one servant, and travelled towards England, by 
way of the Solway sands. He had frequently done so on 
his visits to England, and was acquainted with the safe line 
of that rather hazardous passage. On reaching the sands, 
he thought fit to dismiss his servant, instructing him to 
return home, with a letter to Lady Belhaven. On reaching 
home, the servant reported that, on crossing the Solway 
sands, his master, horse and all, disappeared. Sir James 
Balfour, under date 3d July, 1652, reports the story in the 
following terms : " Sir John Hamiltone, Lord Beilheauen, 
quho had married the daughter of James, 2d Marques of 
Hamilton, and widow of Lord Sal ton, miserablie perished 
in the sinking sands of Solway, going towardes England, 
having mistaken the safe way, and trusting too much to 
himselve without a gyde. The man was a werey gallant 
gentleman, and much regretted by all who knew him." The 
present Lord Belhaven mentioned to the author, that Sir 
Walter Scott informed him, that the story, as recorded by 
Balfour, was fixed on as the foundation of a similar story 
which has been introduced into the "Bride of Lammermoor," 
accounting for the disappearance of the Master of Eavens- 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 9l 

wood. Lord Belhaven did not perish in the Solway sands. 
He had crossed these sands too often to be mistaken as to 
the line of safe footing, and was characterized for caution. 
He found his way up to London, and thence down to Rich- 
mond, where he considered he would have better opportun- 
ities of wearing his disguise. Attracted by the sylvan 
scenery of Richmond park, and with the view of gratifying 
his favourite tastes incognito, he engaged himself to be a 
gardener. He had not forgotten that his royal master had, 
at one time, to assume the disguise of a wood-cutter, and, at 
another, that of a travelling servant. The intelligence 
manifested by the Scotch gardener soon won towards him 
the respect of his employers. He managed to get himself 
repeatedly appointed to go over to Holland, to obtain choice 
seeds and bulbous roots. His real motive, on occasion of 
these visits, was to have an opportunity of meeting with 
the exiled Scottish nobility, and especially with Charles II., 
who was also then an exile in Holland. Cromwell died in 
the year 1658 ; and his son, Richard, who succeeded him in 
the Protectorate, having held office for little more than 
seven months, abdicated, and retired into private life. In 
the year 1660, Charles was restored to the throne of his 
fathers ; and Lord Belhaven, with others, returned home to 
enjoy their estates in peace. 

It has been already mentioned that Lord Belhaven's 
family consisted of three daughters. In the year 1675, 
feeling himself to be an old man, and having no male issue, 
he thought proper to resign the honours of the peerage into 
the hands of the sovereign. Charles II. declined receiving 
them ; and, on the other hand, granted a fresh patent, under 



92 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

date 15th December, 1675, continuing the peerage to Lord 
Belhaven for life, and, upon his decease, granting its honours 
to the husband of one of his grand-daughters. Lord Bel- 
haven died in the year 1679, and, according to the limitation 
in the charter of 1675, the title devolved upon the eldest 
son of Lord Pressmennan, one of the Senators of the College 
of Justice, who became the second Lord Belhaven. 

Sir John Hamilton of Biel, who became the second Lord 
Belhaven, was a Lord of the Treasury in 1704, and took a 
decided stand in opposing the Union of the crowns in 1706. 
His history was a stirring one, and was somewhat melan- 
choly. He had been Lord Belhaven only two years, when 
the oath was framed which was called "the Test ;*' which 
was obviously designed to crush the spirit, and extinguish 
the cause, of the covenanting party in Scotland. This oath 
has been characterized by Wodrow as " the most complex 
and self- contradictory of oaths — without a parallel among 
the oaths forced upon a protesting nation." Many of the 
best men among the Scottish nobles were opposed to it. 
The Earl of Argyle having refused to take it, without explan- 
ations, was accused of treason, and had to pay the penalty 
of this alleged crime by laying his head on the block. 
During the discussions which " the test " occasioned in the 
Scottish Parliament, Lord Belhaven expressed himself to 
the following effect, that " in it he saw a way for securing 
religion among the subjects themselves, but he did not see 
his way for securing our religion, against a Popish and 
fanatical successor to the crown." For these expressions he 
was at once committed a prisoner to the castle of Edinburgh, 
and accused of treason. In his defence, he pled the warmth 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 93 

of liis national feelings, and admitted that, under their im- 
pulse, he may have been led to express himself too strongly 
— threw himself on the mercy of the ruling power — was 
pardoned — and restored to his seat in Parliament. After 
all, he was on the right side, and had only spoken the truth, 
as soon came to be too plainly verified. In January, 1689, 
he was one of the Scottish nobles who went up to London, 
to assist in settling the crown on William and Mary. During 
the same year he commanded a troop of horse at the battle 
of Killiecrankie — the battle in which the notorious Claver- 
house was slain. On the death of William, and the accession 
of Anne to the crown, proposals were submitted to unite the 
crown of Scotland to that of England. Two- thirds of the 
people of Scotland were hostile to the measure ; looking on 
it as a surrender of their independence. In the midst of an 
animated debate on the proposal, on the floor of the old 
Parliament-house of Edinburgh, the patriotism and indig- 
nation of Lord Belhaven burst forth. On that occasion he 
spoke as follows : — 

" Where are the Douglases, the Grahams, the Campbells, 
our peers and chieftains, who vindicated by their swords 
from the usurpation of the Edwards, the independence of 
their country, which their sons are about to forfeit by a 
single vote ? I see the English constitution remaining firm ; 
the same trading companies, laws, and judicatures ; whilst 
ours are either subjected to new regulations, or are annihilated 
for ever. And for what? — that we maybe admitted to 
the honour of paying their old arrears, and presenting a few 
witnesses to attest the new debts, which they may be pleased 
to contract ! Good God ! is this an entire surrender ? My 
heart bursts with indignation and grief, at the triumph 



94 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

which the English will obtain to-day, over a fierce and war- 
like nation, which has struggled to maintain its independence 
so long ! But, if England should offer us our own conditions, 
never will I consent to the surrender of our sovereignty, 
without which, unless the contracting parties remain inde- 
pendent, there is no security different from his, who stipulates 
for the preservation of his property when he becomes a 
slave!" 

However much these sentiments may be admired, on 
account of the patriotism which they breathe, together with 
the eloquence of their appeal to Scottish hearts, the perora- 
tion of that impassioned address must be given, for the sake 
of the classic taste which Lord Belhaven displayed : — 

" I see our ancient mother, Caledonia, like Caesar, sitting 
in the midst of our senate, looking mournfully around, 
covering herself with her royal garments, and breathing out 
her last words, And thou too, my son ! while she attends 
the fatal blow from our hands." 

For these expressions — creditable alike to the head and 
heart of the patriotic Belhaven — he was ordered into cus- 
tody. He pled, that his position, and ardour of feeling, 
should be accepted as his apology, if he had been guilty of 
any crime. The apology was accepted, and he was liberated. 
In the spring of 1708 there was an attempt made by the 
French to land the Chevalier St. George on the shores of 
Scotland. Lord Belhaven was suspected of being in the 
plot, and was again made a prisoner. Whether there were 
sufficient grounds for his apprehension cannot now be deter- 
mined, as the charge never came to a legal proof. He was, 
however, carried a prisoner to London ; and being publicly 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 95 

led along its streets to the Tower — unable to bear up under 
the disgrace — his patriotic spirit burst within him. He was 
seized with brain fever, and died on the 21st June, 1708. 

His eldest son, John, became the third Lord Belhaven. 
He was one of the representative Peers of Scotland in the 
Parliament of 1715 — the year of the first rebellion — during 
which year he was created a Lord of the bed-chamber. 
He commanded the East Lothian troop of horse at the 
battle of Sheriifmuir, where he displayed great bravery. 
In the year 1721, he was appointed Governor of the island 
of Barbadoes. On his voyage thither — at midnight, on 
the 17th November — the vessel struck on the Stag-rocks, 
near the Lizard point. His Lordship, with the whole crew 
and passengers, to the number of 240 persons — with the 
exception of one individual — perished. 

His eldest son, John, became fourth Lord Belhaven. He 
was created General of the Mint, and appointed one of the 
Trustees for the encouragement of trade and fisheries in 
Scotland. He was unmarried, and died at Newcastle on 
the 28th August, 1764. 

His brother, James, succeeded him, as fifth Lord Bel- 
haven. He was entered a member of the Faculty of 
Advocates in the year 1728. He was Sheriff-Depute of 
Haddington in the year 1747. He also was unmarried. 
He died on the 25th January, 1777. 

We must now go back, and place on record another 
notice of the patriotic John, second Lord Belhaven. Jn the 



96 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

year 1701, lie executed a deed of entail, settling the estates 
on the heirs male of his body, and failing them, on the heirs 
female, to the exclusion of their husbands. The fifth Lord 
Belhaven was unmarried ; and as the whole male descen- 
dants of the second Lord's father, Lord Pressmennan, had 
entirely failed, the family estates, which were of great value, 
devolved upon the nearest female heir, Mrs. Mary Hamilton 
Nisbet of Pentcaitland. She was accordingly served heir 
to James, fifth Lord Belhaven, on the 3d December, 1783. 
She thus became heiress to the Belhaven estates, and we 
must now go in search of an heir to the Belhaven peerage. 

It will now be necessary to bring to recollection that the 
first Lord Belhaven was, on the father's side, descended 
from the Hamiltons of Broomhill, and, on the mother's side, 
from the Hamiltons of Udston. John Hamilton of TJdston 
had three sons. The eldest became John Hamilton of 
Coltness — the Coltness estate being then the property of 
his father. The second son, by marriage with the heiress 
of Barncleuth, became James Hamilton of Barncleuth ; and 
the third son became William Hamilton of Wishaw. It 
will be proper, further, to bring to recollection that, as the 
first Lord Belhaven had no male issue, Charles I. was 
pleased to continue the peerage in the person of the husband 
of one of his grand-daughters. This grand-daughter repre- 
sented the Barncleuth branch, which furnished the third, 
fourth, and fifth Lords Belhaven, in the last of whom the 
male issue, in the Barncleuth line, failed. According to 
the usual course of descent established by the entail law of 
Scotland, in the case of their having been three brothers — 
as was the case now in dispute — if there should be a failure 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 97 

of male heirs in the family of the middle brother, then the 
male heir of the third brother is entitled to succeed in 
preference to the male heir of the oldest brother. The claim 
to the peerage, however, was litigated. William Hamilton, 
captain in the 44th Regiment of foot, claimed to be lineally 
descended from, and heir male of, John Hamilton ofColtness. 
Upon this claim he assumed the title of Lord Belhaven, and 
voted upon it at the election of Representative Peers, in the 
year 1790. This claim and vote were disputed, by the 
Attorney- General, on behalf of the male heir of William 
Hamilton of Wishaw. On the 5th January, 1793, the 
Lords' Committee of Privileges unanimously decided that 
the vote given by William Hamilton, in 1790, was a bad 
vote — a decision which was confirmed by the House of 
Peers. Immediately upon this confirmation having been 
declared, W 7 illiam Hamilton of Wishaw, son and heir of the 
deceased Robert Hamilton of Wishaw, petitioned the crown 
for the dignity and title of Lord Belhaven and Stenton. 
The petition was referred to the House of Lords, and, on 
having been fully considered, the claim was determined in 
his favour, on the 25th April, 1799. 

It will now be proper to give a brief sketch of the Wishaw 
family. 

The founder of. the Hamiltons of Wishaw was William, 
youngest son of Hamilton of Udston. He died in the year 
1624. He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, 
William, who died, at a very advanced age, in the year 
1728. His eldest son having predeceased him, the estate, 
in 1726, was inherited by his grand-son, William, who 

G 



98 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

married the grand-daughter of John, seventh Earl of Marr, 
by whom he had a numerous family. This accounts for the 
armorial bearings of the Erskines of Marr being inserted, 
with those of the Hamiltons of Wishaw, on the front wall 
of Wishaw house. In the year 1756, William Hamilton of 
Wishaw was killed by a fall from his horse, returning from 
Hamilton, and was succeeded by his second son, who died, 
unmarried, in the year 1763. In that year Kobert Hamilton 
succeeded his brother. The fifth Lord Belhaven died in 
1777, and in that year Robert Hamilton of Wishaw was 
entitled to be called the sixth Lord Belhaven. However, 
he did not assume the title — it having, as we have seen, 
been claimed by a descendant of the Coltness line. He 
died at Wishaw, on the 27th March, 1784, and was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son, William, who was born on the 
13th January, 1765, and, on his father's decease, was 
entitled to be called the seventh Lord Belhaven. He did 
not, however, assume it, as the claim to the title was 
disputed, and a decision had not yet been given. He 
assumed it, however, on the 25th April, 1799, when the 
House of Lords determined in his favour. He died on the 
29th October, 1814, and was succeeded by his eldest son, 
Robert-Montgomery, the present peer, as eighth Lord 
Belhaven. 

His Lordship was born in the year 1793. In the year 
1831, he was created a British Peer, under, the title of Baron 
Hamilton of Wishaw. — And long may his Lordship live to 
enjoy the honours of the peerage, and share in the best 
wishes of the inhabitants of the Burgh of Wishaw. 



THE SHAEE 

WHICH THE 

PARISH OF CAMBUSN ETHAN 

HAD IN THE 

TEOUBLES AND SUFFEKINGS 

OF THE 

PERSECUTING PERIOD. 



%\t |3mmtthtg ^txxob. 



Several years ago, a friend of the author's, on a tour 
through the south of Ireland, found it necessary on one 
occasion to travel all night, so as to fulfil an engagement 
next day. The only conveyance was by one of Bianconi's 
cars. A great portion of the way lay along a bleak, deso- 
late heath. About midnight the car stopped, and a fierce- 
looking person took a seat upon it. In his appearance 
there was nothing to encourage conversation, but he seemed 
determined to break silence by asking his fellow-traveller, 
11 Aren't you afraid, Sir, to travel over this country at 
this hour of the night ?" " Not in the slightest," was the 
reply. Silence was for a time continued. The question, 
certainly, was not one very inviting to conversation, especi- 
ally when the outward appearance of the proposer of it, and 
the circumstances under which it was put, were taken into 
account. After a brief interval, the question was repeated, 
Jn tones fully sterner than before. There was enough to 
excite fear, but it was the best policy not to manifest it. 
It is a characteristic of a Scotchman to answer one question 
by proposing another. u What should I be afraid of?" 
was the reply, on the question being repeated. " You're a 
Scotchman, I perceive, and may be none the worse for a 



102 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OP THE 

bit of advice. In Ireland, Sir, don't take a man's farm over 
his head, and don't meddle with his religion, and nobody- 
will touch a hair of your head." The second part of the 
advice will be found to have a practical value in other 
countries, as much so as in Ireland. History furnishes 
ample proof, that men who value their religious privileges 
will resist an attack on them, probably with as much firm- 
ness as any attack made on their principles. We need not go 
for an illustration beyond what has been called the Cove- 
nanting Period, in the history of our own country. 

We now enter on the enquiry, How far the Parish 
of Cambusnethan had a share in the Troubles and I 
Sufferings of the Persecuting Period? 

Before entering on the minuter, and more deeply inter- 
esting details, it will be proper to make a few preliminary 
statements. This is the more necessary, that, from the 
outset, we may have distinctly before us the circumstances 
which became the occasion of the Troubles and Sufferings 
of that eventual period. 

- - Popery — as the national form of religion — was abolished 
in Scotland, by a vote of Parliament, in the year 1560. 
The first thing, of any importance, which the Parliament 
proceeded to, on passing this vote, was to draw up and 
sanction " A Confession of Faith." The next thing was, to 
agree upon a form of government by which the church 
should henceforth be regulated. The Parliament having 
taken into consideration that the Prelacy of the English 
church was, in its rule, too much akin to the Papal model — 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 103 

that the voice of the people was not duly recognised by 
Prelacy — and that the government of the church was too 
delusively in the hands of bishops and dignitaries — resolved 
to adopt the Presbyterian form of government, because it 
secured the rights and liberties of the people, and placed all 
thi ministers of the gospel upon the same level. King 
Janes VI. had, from infancy, been brought up under Pres- 
bjterian rule. He was a very vain man — vain of his theo- 
logical attainments — fond of flattery — and, On succeeding 
tothe English crown, was completely carried away from his 
edy ecclesiastical principles, by the flattery of the bishops, 
ad the external splendour of the English church service. 
I one of his addresses to the General Assembly, before 
laving Scotland, he characterized the English service as 
4 an ill mumbled mass," and gave his solemn pledge to 
maintain the principles and government of the Scottish 
liurch. He had sworn and subscribed " The National 
Covenant ;" but had not been seven months on the throne 
of England, when he had made up his mind to bring the 
Scottish church to conform to the Prelacy of England. The 
Puritans of England had expected a removal of their griev- 
ances, as James had been known to express his preferences 
for Presbyterianism ; but they were doomed to disappoint- 
ment. They learned " not to put their trust in princes." 
At the Hampton Court conference, they proposed that 
meetings of the clergy be convened to confer on religious 
subjects ; but James rejected the proposal with rudeness. 
u If you aim at a Scottish Presbytery," said he, "it agrees 
as well with monarchy as God and the devil. Then Jack 
and Tom, and Will and Dick, shall meet, and at their 
pleasure censure me and my council. Stay, I pray you, for 



104 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

one seven years before you demand it ; and then, if you find 
me grown pursy and fat, I may perhaps hearken unto you, 
for that government will keep me in breath, and give ne 
work enough. 1 " This was plain speaking. The Fnritais 
could not have mistaken its meaning. James was preparhg 
to introduce Prelacy into Scotland, and thereby to oxst 
Presbyterianism from his fatherland. 

Charles L followed in the footsteps of his father, >y 
pressing his Prelatic tendencies on his Scottish subjecs. 
He did this so strongly, and unwisely, as to lead to an opn 
rupture. The throwing of Jenny Geddes' stool at the he;d 
of the Dean of Edinburgh, when he was, for the first tim, 
conducting the worship according to the English liturg;, 
was " the blow which began the battle" between Charles i 
and his Scottish subjects. It marked the commencemen 
of one of the most remarkable social revolutions through 
which this or any other nation has passed. While events 
were in progress which consummated this Revolution, 
Charles lost his head ; but Scotland kept her covenant. 

During the reign of Charles I. an event occurred which 
marked an epoch in the religious history of Scotland, and 
which, from the close proximity of the scene of its occurrence 
to the parish of Cambusnethan, and the moral influence 
which it diffused over the district, is deserving of a notice 
at this period of our narrative. The parish of Shotts adjoins 
the parish of Cambusnethan, along a large portion of its 
northern boundary. The event alluded to was the remark- 
able awakening at the Kirk of Shotts, on the 21st June, 
1630. The Lord's Supper had been dispensed there on the 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 105 

previous day. Through the influence of the Marchioness of 
Hamilton, several eminent ministers had met to assist in the 
services connected with the dispensation of the ordinance. 
Great multitudes, from a distance, had been drawn thither, 
to hear these servants of Christ. The Sabbath had been a 
feast-day to their souls. It had not then become customary 
to have public worship on the Monday after the communion? 
but a few pious persons, before the close of the Sabbath 
service, requested the minister of the parish to intimate that 
there would be a thanksgiving service next day, and leaving 
it to him to fix on the minister who should conduct this 
service. He acceded to the request, and fixed on Mr. John 
Livingstone, chaplain in the family of the Countess of Wig- 
ton, then residing in the neighbourhood of Shotts, as the 
minister who should preach on the morrow. The services 
of that Monday were conducted in the open air, at the west 
end of the church-yard. The text was Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 26. 
Mr. Livingstone had discoursed from this text for about an 
hour, when a shower of rain began to fall. He took occasion 
to improve the circumstance by remarking, " What a mercy 
is it that the Lord sifts that rain through these heavens on 
us, and does not rain down fire and brimstone, as he did 
upon Sodom and Gomorrah !" Many were discomposed by 
the shower* and were moving off, when Mr. Livingstone, 
elevating his voice, said, " If some of you cannot endure a 
shower of rain, how, think ye, are ye likely to stand the 
outpourings of the vials of wrath in the day of the Lord? 1 ' 
These words arrested them; and, for another hour, the 
preacher went on in a strain of warning and exhortation, 
which the Lord honoured, in savingly impressing the hearts 
of at least five hundred persons then listening to the message 



106 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OP THE 

of mercy. u The last day of the feast," on that occasion, 
certainly was " the great day." There can be no doubt 
that many persons from the upper part of the parish of 
Cambusnethan were in that auditory, and it is allowable to 
admit, that to the souls of some of them the word that day 
came with power. This at least is certain, that from that 
day there was a great increase of vital and practical piety 
in the families resident on the banks of C alder water, and 
the upper part of the parish of Cambusnethan. Meetings 
for prayer and fellowship were instituted, and long main- 
tained. Muiryett was particularly noted from a very early 
period for one of these meetings, and the spirit which was 
awakened there, more than two hundred years ago, is still 
alive. Within eight years after this remarkable awakening 
at the Kirk of Shotts, the conflict between Charles and the 
Covenanters commenced. Almost the whole population in 
Cambusnethan sympathized with the Covenanters; and 
when the sifting and testing times of persecution came round, 
some thirty years afterwards, it was no more than might 
have been anticipated, that very many were prepared " to 
take joyfully the spoiling of their goods," and to endure 
"bonds and imprisonment/' rather than disown the testi- 
mony which, by word and deed, they had solemnly emitted. 

This brief allusion to the awakening at the Kirk of Shotts, 
and the share of it in which the parish of Cambusnethan 
participated, will justify us in following Mr. Livingstone a 
little way in his subsequent course. In the year 1638 he 
was ordained at Stranraer, and was a member of the famous 
General Assembly which met that year in Glasgow Cathe- 
dral. Ten years afterwards, he was removed to Ancruni, 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 107 

in Teviotdale. "When prosecuting his ministry in this 
retired locality, Charles I. was beheaded. Charles II. was 
then on the continent ; and when the church of Scotland 
thought proper to send commissioners to Holland to entreat 
the King to return, stating to him the terms on which they 
were willing to acknowledge him as their King, Mr. Liv- 
ingstone was deemed, one of three, best qualified to conduct 
this critical overture to a favourable issue. The King was 
prevailed on to return to Scotland. Mr. Livingstone had 
his fears and forebodings that he could not be trusted ; and 
so strongly did these impressions influence him, that he 
would not permit the King to land on the soil of Scotland, 
till he had solemnly sworn and subscribed the covenants. 
He went on board the vessel which had couveyed his Majesty 
to the shores of his native land, and dealt very faithfully 
with him, before tendering to him the oath, or receiving his 
subscription. However, even after receiving the royal oath 
and subscription to the covenants, Mr. Livingstone seems 
to have had his misgivings, that there was no real change 
wrought on the King's heart, and that he secretly cherished 
principles at variance with the covenants, which he had so 
solemnly subscribed. Mr. Livingstone was not mistaken. 
He lived to be a victim to the indignation of the Monarch, 
whom he had been instrumental in restoring to the throne 
of his fathers, and a martyr to the principles which he 
deemed dearer to him than country, or liberty. He sub- 
mitted to a voluntary banishment to Holland, where he died, 
at an advanced age. 

We now proceed directly with our narrative. Charles II. 
— the most unprincipled of our Princes — convinced that it 



108 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

was good policy towards Scotland to have the nobles and 
people on his side, swore the covenants — even on his knees— 
and engaged to maintain the Presbyterian church and 
government in Scotland. It soon became sufficiently 
obvious that he detested the church of Scotland, and her 
covenants, regarding them as the curb bridle on his love of 
Prelacy and arbitrary power. He was resolved to attempt 
the abolition of Presbyterianism in Scotland. He dreaded 
nothing so much as the power which that form of govern- 
ment placed in the hands of the people. He had taken 
measures, at all hazards, to establish Prelacy in its stead. 
He knew that he had the English bishops, and several of 
the Scottish nobles, at his back. The leading men in Scot- 
land, however, were not traitors to their trust. Charles 
might have thrown to the winds the solemn vows which he 
made at his coronation, in the palace of Scone ; but there 
were patriots in Scotland who could take up the covenants 
which he had subscribed, and afterwards torn and trampled 
on, and, holding them up, thus dishonoured by him, allow 
them to accuse him of faithlessness to the terms on which he 
had been received by his subjects, as their Sovereign. Fore- 
most, in this band of patriots, was the Marquess of Argyle, 
who had placed the crown on the head of Charles. Charles 
and his partisans were determined to get rid of him, and 
Argyle had to lay his head on the block. Twelve of the 
more influential of the Presbyterian ministers drew up a 
remonstrance, against the tyrannical measures which the 
government were adopting. Mr. James Guthrie, minister 
of Stirling, was the leader of this party. His enemies con- 
cluded that, with the view of silencing his opposition to 
them, he must either retract, or accept of a bishopric. He 






PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 109 

would do neither ; and they then resolved on putting him 
to death. He was hanged and beheaded at the cross of 
Edinburgh. His head was placed on the Nether-Bow port, 
and for twenty-seven years remained there, a melancholy 
witness against the spirit which, during that long period, 
prevailed in the high places of our land. Johnston of War- 
riston, the able law adviser of the Scottish church, met with 
the same ignominious death, for faithful witness-bearing. 

When these clouds were gathering, which ultimately 
burst over the land, the good men of the times sent an 
individual to London, to whom they entrusted the defence 
of the Presbyteriaa cause, and the liberties which the 
Covenanters now found to be in danger. The person whom 
they selected for this mission, and in whom they thought 
they could repose confidence, was Mr. James Sharp, minister 
of Crail, in Fife. He basely betrayed the cause which he 
had solemnly engaged to protect and promote. While, in 
his correspondence with the leading men of the church of 
Scotland, he kept up a semblance of attachment to their 
cause, he was secretly lending his aid to the overthrow of 
Presbyterianism and the covenants, and to the successful 
introduction of Prelacy. In the plot, he played a little game 
of his own, and so adroitly, as ultimately to get himself 
created Archbishop of Saint Andrews, and Primate of Scot- 
land. It was necessary that he should have bishops under 
him, with whom he might co-operate, in carrying out the 
measures, to their full extent, on which Prelacy was now 
resolved. Among the Presbyterian ministers in Scotland, 
he could, at first, obtain only three who consented to be 
ordained to be bishops. The first was Mr. Andrew Fair- 



110 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OP THE 

fowl, minister of Dunse, who became Archbishop of Glasgow, 
and whose character has been already adverted to, and 
briefly sketched, in this volume. The second — most won- 
derful to relate — was a minister, whose father's sufferings, 
under the hands of Prelacy, we cannot avoid noticing. Dr. 
Alexander Leighton had published a little volume, still 
known, " Zion's Plea against Prelacy." This volume was 
so offensive in the estimation of the leaders of the Episcopal 
party, that, in the year 1629, he was seized, tried before 
the infamous Star Chamber in London, and, at the instance 
of Bishop Laud, was condemned to endure the following 
penalties and tortures. He was fined ,£10,000. — publicly 
whipped at a cart's tail — set in the pillory at Westminster 
— when there, had one ear cut off, one nostril slit up, and, 
on one cheek, the letters S.S. — to express Sower of Sedition 
— were branded with a red hot iron. A week after this, he 
was again pilloried in Cheapside, had his other ear cut off, 
his other nostril slit up, and his other cheek branded with 
the letters S.S., and then ordered to prison for the remain- 
der of life. He remained in prison for ten years, when the 
Parliament released him. Singular enough, his son, Mr. 
Robert Leighton, who had been minister at Newbattle, 
near Dalkeith, and who, in the year 1661, was principal 
of the university of Edinburgh, consented to be consecrated 
Bishop of Dunblane. And who was the third, in this small 
company of bishops, who rallied around the traitorous 
Sharp ? He was Mr. James Hamilton, minister of the 
parish of Cambusneihan, who, having gone up to London, 
with Fairfowl and Leighton, was ordained by the Bishop of 
London, and came down to Scotland wearing the title of 
Bishop of Galloway. When minister in Cambusnethan he 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. Ill 

married into the family of Steuart of Allanton. His con- 
dition as a bishop contrasted very strongly with the quietude 
of his pastoral labours in Cambusnethan. He was not long 
in discovering that, in Galloway, he was not reposing on a 
bed of roses ; and, that his bishop's mitre pressed on his 
brow, as painfully, as if it had been a chaplet of thorns. 

At this point in our narrative it will be proper to bring 
to recollection, what was fully stated in the previous lecture, 
that Leighton came to be particularly associated with the 
parish of Cambusnethan. Fairfowl, who had been made 
Archbishop of Glasgow, died in the year 1663. Burnet, 
who succeeded him, was dispossessed of his title and office 
in the year 1670. In that year Leighton was removed from 
Dunblane to Glasgow. He must have felt his position as 
Archbishop, especially in Glasgow, any thing but comfort- 
able, as he retained it only three years, and craved to retire 
again into the quietude of Dunblane. His residence in 
Garrion tower, during the period he was Archbishop, has 
been formerly alluded to. As Cambusnethan was one of 
his mensal kirks, and Garrion tower, as a residence, both in 
respect of locality and retirement, had peculiar attractions, 
it was only natural for a man, whose mental temperament 
was studious and seclusive, to spend his quieter days here. 
Sir John Harper, who was the proprietor of Cam'nethan 
estate at the time, was also Sheriff-Depute of the county of 
Lanark ; and from the proximity of Garrion tower to 
Cam'nethan house, it was no more than might have been 
expected, that the Bishop and the Sheriff should frequently 
meet. This is confirmed by the circumstance, that they are 
frequently found associated, in the records of that period, in 



112 niSTORIOAL SKETCHES OF THE 

carrying out the government measures within the sphere of 
their jurisdiction. The Bishop must have felt his ecclesias- 
tical authority to be nearly powerless, unless supported and 
borne out by the strong arm of the Sheriff. Both of them 
had to see that the persecuting edicts of the Privy Council 
were executed. Neither of them was at home in such kind 
of work. Leighton soon went back to Dunblane, that he 
might avoid interfering with the devoted Covenanters of 
Clydesdale ; and Harper, suspected of corresponding with 
them rather than concussing them, was imprisoned in Edin- 
burgh castle, and only liberated on granting a bond for ten 
thousand pounds sterling, to answer when called upon. 

Leighton, the late principal of Edinburgh university, and 
Hamilton, late minister of Cambusnethan, had been bishops 
scarcely three months, when an Act was passed having for 
its object, the compelling of the Presbyterian ministers to be 
re-ordained by the bishops, and subject to them ; or, if they 
refused, the effectually crushing of them. In the event of any 
minister refusing to conform to Prelacy, he was to be de- 
prived of his stipend for that year — removed from his parish 
and presbytery — prohibited from ever after exercising any 
part of his ministerial office — and his parishioners who might 
be in arrears with him for stipend, were not to pay him, 
and, whoever attended on his ministrations were to be pro- 
ceeded against as frequenters of conventicles. What was 
the result? Nearly four hundred ministers, chiefly in the 
southern counties of Scotland, refused to conform. In the 
Presbytery of Lanark, with its thirteen parishes, not one 
minister conformed. Mr. Hamilton, who had been minister 
of Cambusnethan, by accepting of a bishopric, had con- 



PAEISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 113 

formed ; but he was the solitary conforming minister in the 
Presbytery of Hamilton, with its fourteen parishes. Thus, 
in the whole vale of Clyde, from above Tinto almost down 
to Glasgow, only one minister conformed to Prelacy, and he 
was Mr. James Hamilton of Cambusnethan. This circum- 
stance, of itself, will go a great way to shew what was the 
state of feeling among the really pious in Scotland, and 
especially in Clydesdale, two hundred years ago. It will 
also prepare us for the deeply interesting story of the sacri- 
fices to which they submitted, rather than renounce their 
principles, and the privileges to which these principles 
entitled them. Let us keep in recollection, then, that 
nearly four hundred ministers were silenced — nearly four 
hundred parishes were left vacant — and, that into many of 
these parishes curates were introduced, not only ill qualified 
for ministerial work, but immoral, erroneous in their prin- 
ciples, and with strong leanings towards popery. 

It became exceedingly difficult for the bishops to supply 
the vacant parishes with curates. The measure to which, 
under the circumstance, they had recourse, was a crafty and 
successful one. It was to divide the strength of the non- 
conforming party, by introducing an element of discord 
among them. An Act of Indulgence was passed, which 
tolerated the non-conforming ministers in returning to their 
former parishes, if still vacant ; or, in officiating in vacant 
parishes over which they might be appointed by the Privy 
Council. However, they were tolerated on the following 
terms : that they submitted to the authority of the bishop — 
that they confined their ministry to their own parishes — that 
they discountenanced the attendance on their ministry by 

n 



114 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

persons from neighbouring parishes — and that if they refused 
to submit to the authority of the bishop, their income should 
be restricted to the occupancy of the manse and glebe, aye 
and until entire submission was yielded by them. Only 
forty-three ministers accepted of the indulgence on these 
terms. Mr. William Vilant, who had been minister of 
Ferry-port-on-Craig, in the county of Fife, was one of them. 
On the 27th July, 1669, the Privy Council sent him to the 
parish of Cambusnethan, in which he continued to minister 
for several years. 

Mr. Vilant was minister of Cambusnethan during a con- 
siderable portion of the persecuting period, and had a large 
share in the troubles and sufferings peculiar to that period. 
He had accepted of the indulgence. This indulgence, as 
might have been expected, did not work well, so far as those 
who had accepted it were concerned. Their grievances 
pressed heavily upon them, and retarded their usefulness. 
They resolved to draw up a statement of these grievances, 
and lay them before the Privy Council. Mr. Vilant must 
have been regarded as a person of some business talent, as 
his party selected him to draw up a statement of their 
grievances. His personal grievances must be particularly 
noticed. In January, 1675, he came personally before the 
Council in Edinburgh, and stated that he had served the 
parish faithfully from the day of his indulgence in it — that 
he had a numerous family to support, but that he had not 
received any part of the stipend for the years 1672, 1673, 
and 1674, and craved that an order might be issued, em- 
powering him to uplift the same. The Council granted 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 115 

warrant accordingly, and compelled the heritors and others 
to pay the arrears. 

During Mr. Vilant's ministry in Cambusnethan, the 
parish acquired some notoriety, among the persecuted dis- 
tricts, by the strong measures adopted by the Privy Council 
against the leading persons in it, who either countenanced 
the Covenanters, or did not throw the full weight of their 
influence into the hands of the government; Darngavel 
and Darmeid were becoming famous as gathering places, 
to which the persecuted and oppressed crowded, when one 
of their ministers was expected there. Black-loch, situated 
a very little to the north of Cambusnethan, became peculi- 
arly famous for a conventicle held there in June, 1684, and 
the measures which resulted from it. There are reasons for 
concluding that the sermon on that occasion was preached by 
Ren wick, the last of the martyrs. This conventicle at Black- 
loch gave the Council great annoyance. The greater portion 
of the heritors, and principal parishioners, in Cambusnethan, 
were brought into trouble in consequence of its having been 
held in their vicinity, or from their having been directly, or 
indirectly, concerned in it. William Steuart of Allanton, 
his brother of Hartwood, Walker of Halketburn, and Mr. 
Vilant, were particularly pounced upon, and were cited to 
appear before the Council on the 1st July. Mr. Steuart of 
Allanton had not been at the conventicle. However, he 
had seen a large party who had been at it pass his house, 
on their way to cross the Clyde, and because he did not 
raise the hue and cry against them, he was fined in three 
thousand merks. His brother, of Hartwood, on returning 
from sermon at Cambusnethan kirk, had met the same party, 



116 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

and because he did not raise the hue and cry against them, 
he was fined in one thousand merks. This party had come 
from the south side of the Clyde. They had intended to 
cross it by the ford near to Carbarns, and, consequently, 
passed downward by way of Cambusnethan manse. Mr. 
Vilant, the minister, did not raise the hue and cry ; and, 
inasmuch as he had been, in the estimation of the Council, 
troublesome to them, and an eye-sore to the bishop, he was 
specially cited to appear before the Council. In his defence, 
he argued that, as a minister of the gospel of peace, he did 
not consider it was his duty to take any part in a sanguin- 
ary matter. On being closely interrogated, he confessed 
that he had not confined his ministry to his own parish, and 
that he had baptized children to parents who belonged to 
neighbouring parishes, but refused to depone who they were. 
Still further, he held that he had his instructions, as a min- 
ister of the gospel, from Jesus Christ, and so behoved to 
obey Him, as he was to answer to Him. These were serious 
admissions on his part, in the eyes of the Council. They 
were deemed a violation of the terms on which he had been 
indulged at Cambusnethan. The Council were resolved to 
get rid of him for the future. They declared his indulgence 
to be at an end ; ordered him to prison, and to find caution 
to remove out of the kingdom within a month. In the 
previous lecture we have mentioned that this good man had 
to submit to voluntary exile, and have narrated his subse- 
quent ecclesiastical history. 

These details, which are but preliminary, do, nevertheless, 
possess a large amount of interest, because of their more 
immediate connexion with this locality. We now enter, 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 117 

more directly, on a consideration of the minuter details of 
the share which Cambusnethan had in the troubles and 
sufferings of the persecuting period. Many persons in this 
parish suppose that Arthur Inglis of Netherton was our 
solitary martyr. They require to be set right on this point. 

The first rising of the oppressed and persecuted, by taking 
up arms, was in Galloway. The first mustering place was 
at Ochiltree, in Ayrshire. The little army passed thence 
towards Mauchline, Muirkirk, Douglas, and Lanark, gather- 
ing numbers and strength in its progress. This was in the 
year 1666. At that time Sir James Steuart of Coltness had 
a chaplain and tutor in his family — a licentiate — a young 
man of decided piety and talent, of the name of M'Kail. 
He was nephew to one of the Edinburgh ministers. About 
four years previous to the rising into arms referred to, Mr. 
M'Kail, in a sermon delivered in his uncle's pulpit, had 
taken occasion to advert to the miserable condition of a 
nation, when there was " an Ahab on the throne, a Haman 
in the state, and a Judas in the church." When the occasion 
on which this discourse was spoken, and the auditory before 
whom it was delivered, are taken into account, it will not 
be surprising that the statement of the preacher should have 
been looked upon, as being directly pointed at three individ- 
uals then occupying the high places in the country. There 
was but one opinion that Charles II. was the unprincipled 
Ahab — that the Earl of Lauderdale, alike cruel, unscrupu- 
lous, and dissolute, was the Haman — and the traitorous 
James Sharp, who was now Archbishop of Saint Andrews, 
and Primate of Scotland, was the Judas. From that day Mr. 
M'Kail was a marked man by the heads of the goverment 



118 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

in church and state, and they longed for an opportunity 
when, by some overt act on his part, they might feel justified 
in seizing him, and proceeding formally to be avenged upon 
him. Mr. M'Kail was aware of this, and as the vengeance 
of the oppressors had fallen on Sir Jame3 Steuart and his 
family, he secretly retired to Holland, where he resided for 
four years, hoping that the storm of persecution which had 
arisen would abate. But for this prudent step, he might 
have met his doom much sooner. 

On returning to Scotland, he found the state of matters 
much worse than when he left it. The yearnings of his 
heart were towards the persecuted; and with youthful 
ardour he joined them at Lanark, and proceeded with them 
towards Pentland. On the way thither, the state of his 
health was such as to oblige him to leave them, and to 
retire to Liberton, that he might recruit under the parental 
roof. His enemies tracked him out, *and carried him a 
prisoner to Edinburgh. When brought before the Council, 
he availed himself of his privilege not to say anything which 
might be construed into a ground of accusation, either 
against himself or others. He refused to answer many 
questions put to him. He was threatened with the torture 
of the boot, that infamous engine of cruelty, in the hope of 
extorting something from him, which he was supposed to 
conceal. It was in vain. The torture was actually inflicted, 
and the young sufferer endured it with the meekness which 
deep christian principle will always exhibit, when called on 
to suffer for the truth. His limbs were so much injured, 
and his health affected, by the tortures of the boot, that the 
Council could not proceed in his case for fully a fortnight. 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 119 

They were, however, resolved on his condemnation. They 
had neither forgotten nor forgiven the allusions to Ahab, 
Hainan, and Judas. He was formally accused of rebellion. 
He nobly defended himself. His death was determined on ; 
and on the 22d December, 1666, he was executed at the 
cross of Edinburgh. He was one of the youngest of our 
Scottish martyrs, being only in his twenty -sixth year. 

Mr. M'Kail is generally understood to have been the 
Epkraim Macbriar of Sir Walter Scott's Old Mortality. Sir 
Walter has been pleased to speak of him as " the fanatical 
Ephraim Maebriar." There is no evidence that he deserved 
such an epithet. The sufferings which he undeservedly 
endured, under infirm health, were sufficient to have un- 
hinged, or at least discomposed his mind ; yet Sir Walter 
represents him as uttering the following testimony before 
the Council, in which we fail to discover anything akin to 
fanaticism : — 

" 'Do you know who that man is?' said Lauderdale, in 
a low, stern voice, almost sinking into a whisper. 

11 'He is, I suppose,' replied Macbriar, 'the infamous 
executioner of your bloodthirsty commands upon the persons 
of God's people. He and you are equally beneath my 
regard ; and, I bless God, I no more fear what he can 
inflict than what you can command. Flesh and blood may 
shrink under the sufferings you can doom me to, and poor 
frail nature may shed tears, or send forth cries ; but I trust 
my soul is anchored firmly on the Rock of ages.' 

" 'Do your duty,' said the Duke to the executioner." 

The torture was inflicted, and Macbriar is represented as 
having fainted under it, so that it was discontinued. The 



120 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

sentence of death, however, was pronounced upon him, so 
soon as he had revived. Macbriar then said : — 

" l My lords, I thank you for the only favour I looked for, 
or would accept at your hands, namely, that you have sent 
the crushed and maimed carcass, which has this day sus- 
tained your cruelty, to this hasty end. It were indeed little 
to me whether I perish on the gallows, or in the prison- 
house ; but if death, following close on what I have this 
day suffered, had found me in my cell of darkness and 
bondage, many might have lost the sight how a Christian 
man can suffer in the good cause. For the rest, I forgive 
you, my lords, for what you have appointed and I have 
sustained. — And why should I not? — Ye send me to a happy 
exchange — to the company of angels and the spirits of the 
just, for that of frail dust and ashes. — Ye send me from 
darkness into day — from mortality to immortality — and, in 
a word, from earth to heaven ! — If the thanks, therefore, 
and pardon of a dying man can do you good, take them at 
my hand, and may your last moments be as happy as 
mine.' " 

We leave it to the verdict of impartiality to say, whether 
these be the sentiments or utterances of a fanatic. The 
words which Mr. M'Kail did utter on the scaffold, at the 
cross of Edinburgh, are worth being recorded. Of all utter- 
ances on that scaffold, from the lips of martyrs, the dying 
testimony of young M l Kail, in point of eloquence, has never 
been equalled. " Farewell father and mother, friends and 
relatives — farewell the world and all its delights — farewell 
sun, moon, and stars — welcome God and Father — welcome 
sweet Jesus Christ, the Mediator of the new covenant — 






PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 121 

welcome blessed Spirit of grace, and God of all consolations 
— welcome glory — welcome eternal life — welcome death!" 

Mr. M'Kail was accompanied to the scaffold by David 
and James Steuart of Coltness, two of his young pupils, 
who were ardently attached to him. On the scaffold, he 
gave his Bible to David, who afterwards became Sir David 
Steuart. This Bible long remained, as an honoured relic, 
in the Coltness family, but it is uncertain whether it now 
exists. After the execution of M'Kail, a circumstance 
transpired which has tended to blacken the character of 
Sharp, the Archbishop, with the darkest infamy. Ten men 
who had been at Pentland were hanged on one gibbet, and 
thirty-five others before their own doors, in different parts 
of the country. The executions were actually so numer- 
ous and merciless, that the King wrote down to the Privy 
Council to stay the work of death. Sharp actually kept up 
the King's letter, till after M^KaiVs execution. He bore the 
young martyr a grudge, and was determined on its gratifi- 
cation. The late Dr. Cooke, in his History of the time, 
thinks Sharp was innocent ; but the clearest evidence has 
attested his guilt, and we do not wonder that, under the 
excitement which such perfidy evoked, men did combine to 
destroy the Archbishop in the manner in which they did. 
The connexion which Mr. Hugh M'Kail had with the family 
of Sir James Steuart of Coltness, has justified us in identi- 
fying him with the parish of Cambusnethan, and enrolling 
him on the list of her sufferers and martyrs. 

The battle of Drumclog was one of the most notable 
events in the troublous times to which we are now alluding. 



122 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

It was fought on the first Sabbath in June, 1679. The 
dragoons, who had that morning gone to disperse a meeting 
of the Covenanters convened for public worship, were headed 
by Claverhouse. The Covenanters were victorious. Claver- 
house with difficulty escaped, having had his horse shot 
under him. Flushed with victory, the Covenanters pro- 
ceeded to Hamilton, and rested for the night. At Hamilton, 
Walter Paterson of Carbarns, a pious youth of eighteen 
years, joined them. They were here greatly reinforced, and 
next forenoon proceeded to Glasgow, increasing their num- 
bers by the way. On reaching Glasgow, they divided 
themselves into two parties — one entering by the Townhead, 
and the other by the Gallowgate. They were undisciplined, 
and had not officers of suitable experience in their attack 
on the city, otherwise it is very probable they would have 
driven the regular forces out of it, and taken possession of 
it. At the Gallowgate bridge they were attacked by the 
soldiery, and in this attack young Paterson and several 
others fell. The papers of the day assert, that Claverhouse 
had given orders that they should not be buried, and that 
the butchers' dogs should be allowed to eat them. The 
corpses lay on the street from eleven o'clock in the forenoon 
till after midnight, as the inhumanity of the soldiery pre- 
vented every one from removing them. They were, however, 
removed under cloud of night. The indignity afterwards 
done to these corpses must be narrated. By pious hands 
they had been decently dressed, preparatory to burial ; but 
the savage soldiery broke into the apartment in which they 
had been laid out — tore off the linens — and actually carried 
off the funeral shrouds. Nobody dared to bury the dead 
bodies, till at length a few heroic women resolved to make 



PARISH OP CAMBUSNETHAN. 123 

the attempt. As they, were bearing the bodies along the 
High Street towards the Cathedral burying- ground, the 
soldiers, with their swords, cut the mortcloths to tatters, and 
carried off the spokes by which the coffins had been upborne, 
leaving the coffins on the street. These devoted women, 
however, did not desist in their attempt to bury their dead. 
They took off their plaids — placed them beneath the coffins, 
and in this mode conveyed the corpses so much nearer the 
burial-ground. The soldiers again attacked them — took 
their plaids from them — and threatened them, if they took 
any farther step in having the dead bodies interred. They 
had by this time reached the point where the Rottenrow 
joins the High Street. The alms-house — remains of which 
still exist — stood there. They bore the coffins into the 
alms-house. They lay there, with their contents, for 
several days, till Mr. John Welsh, and a party of friends 
from Ayr, carried the coffins to the High Church-yard, and 
deposited them in a grave near the wall on the north-east 
corner of the old Cathedral. 

The battle of Both well Bridge was also fought on a 
Sabbath-day — exactly three weeks after the battle of Drum- 
clog. There were a goodly number of persons belonging 
to Cambusnethan at Both well, and were, in consequence, 
brought to trouble, suffering, and loss. One of them was 
James Gourlay, who tenanted the farm of Overtown. When 
he perceived that the Covenanters had lost the day, he fled 
for safety. He was hotly pursued by a few dragoons. In 
his flight, he found his progress interrupted by the wall 
which surrounded the policy of the Duke of Hamilton. If, 
by any possibility, he could get over the wall, he was certain 



124 II1ST0RICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

to escape his pursuers ; but the difficulty was how to get 
over. He observed a crevice between two stones in the 
wall — too small, however, to admit of introducing the point 
of his shoe. Necessity has always been the mother of in- 
vention. Putting his hand into his pocket, he drew out a 
clasp knife, which he managed to introduce into the crevice, 
and, putting his foot on it, reared himself, and with one 
spring cleared the wall, while the bullets from the muskets 
of his pursuers whizzed past his ears. He fled towards the 
Clyde ; and observing that a spreading branch of a tree 
hung close over the surface of the river, he sprang in, 
and under the screening shelter of this branch he stood, 
almost to the neck in water, till midnight. All dripping 
wet, he ventured homeward ; but not to enjoy the comforts 
of his own bed or fireside. He knew of a quiet and secluded 
spot in Garrion-gill, and chose it for his hiding place. He 
had, however, to pay the penalty of his long cold bath, and 
wet clothing. They brought on an asthmatic affection, 
which clung to him during life. One evening he ventured 
home, to enjoy domestic comforts, and the nursing of an 
affectionate wife. Some of the troopers were not far off, 
and were made aware that Gourlay was under his own roof. 
They approached the house at midnight. Gourlay, on being 
aware of his danger, sprang out of bed — quietly drew the 
bar of the back door — and, committing himself to the pro- 
tection of God, fled to his hiding-place in the Gill. On a 
subsequent occasion he was less fortunate; having been 
taken prisoner, and led off towards Hamilton. At a place 
near Hamilton, where the Clyde was fordable, there was 
an ale-house. The troopers having stabled their horses 
here, and locked Gourlay in the stable, entered the ale-house, 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 125 

to regale themselves, and crack their jokes over their good 
fortune in capturing the old whig. Gourlay had now an 
opportunity of escaping, and he did not lose it. Getting on 
to the back of one of the horses, he managed to reach the 
baulks of the stable, and as the stable had only a thatch 
roof, he succeeded in opening a hole in it, and thereby escaped. 
He dashed through the river, and sought the hiding-place 
under the tree, which had served him in his hour of need, 
when flying from Bothwell. He subsequently reached his 
hiding-place in Garrion-gill ; but, for greater safety, was 
necessitated to leave the country. The days of persecution 
came to an end. The Revolution introduced happier times, 
and James Gourlay improved them. He survived the 
Revolution twenty-five years. In the year 1714, his aged 
bones were borne to the old church-yard of Cambusnethan, 
and there his dust rests safely, awaiting the resurrection. 
The Gourlays of Motherwell are sprung from this honourable 
stock. Old James Gibb of Cambusnethan is the great- 
grandson of James Gourlay of Overtown, and to him the 
author has been indebted for the above facts in the history 
of his witness-bearing progenitor. 

Two hundred years ago, there was a homely farm onstead 
in the valley, mid-way between Cam'nethan house and 
Garrionhaugh, called " Cam'nethan Mains/' The farm was 
tenanted by Alexander and James Gray, two brothers, who 
had a large share of loss and suffering during the troublous 
times to which our narrative refers. Their house, during 
the greater portion of the persecuting period, afforded a 
temporary but welcome shelter to those who were flying 
from danger. The hungry and weary always found refresh- 



126 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 



: Of 

ook 



ment and repose under it3 roof. Indeed, it was one 
their favourite haunts, where they often communed, took 
council amid their straits, and joined in their devotional 
exercises. It was at that time a crime to be a resetter of 
a Covenanter. For several years the brothers Gray were 
suspected of being guilty of this alleged crime, and occasion- 
ally, for weeks together, Alexander had to betake himself 
to a hiding-place in Garrion-gill. Cold, damp, and priva- 
tion broke down a vigorous constitution, and brought on 
disease. He was visibly dying, yet it was still unsafe to 
remove him from his damp cave in the Gill, to the comforts 
of his own house and bed, in Cam'nethan Mains. He re- 
quired an amount of attention which it was impossible to 
render him, unless he could be brought nearer home. Under 
cloud of night he was removed to the centre of a corn field, 
near his own house. Here, for weeks, the dying man lay, 
exposed to the rains by day, and the dews by night, till at 
length his friends resolved, at all hazards, to remove him to 
the shelter and comforts of his own house. They had now 
risen above the fear of man, because, in a brief space, the 
emaciated body of Alexander Gray would find a narrow 
bed " where the wicked cease from troubling, and the weary 
are at rest." Sir John Harper, Sheriff- depute of Lanark- 
shire, was at that time proprietor of Cam'nethan. In virtue 
of his office, he had to execute the persecuting edicts of 
those in power, and had frequently attempted to make a 
prisoner of Alexander Gray. His lady was a person of a 
christian spirit, and her sympathies flowed very freely, but 
secretly, in favour of the oppressed. Whenever an oppor- 
tunity afforded, unknown to her husband or domestics, she 
quietly walked up on an evening to call at Cam'nethan 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 127 

Mains, to join in the devotions and share in the pious con- 
versation around its hearth. Her visits having become 
frequent, they were discovered, and became the subject of 
remark and inquiry on the part of her husband. Her ready 
explanation was, " that she thought the gudewife at the 
Mains managed her dairy better than the dairy-maid did 
at Cam'nethan house, and she found herself profited by the 
lessons which she was there acquiring." James Gray sur- 
vived his brother, and was on his way to Bothwell Bridge, 
on the morning of the memorable conflict, when the tidings 
reached him that his friends had been vanquished. He 
held his principles steadfastly, and consistently, till better 
days came round; and, " having served his generation," 
his body was laid beside the bones of Alexander, in the old 
church -yard of Cambusnethan. The hospitalities, to which 
the wanderer was always welcome, under the roof of Cam'- 
nethan Mains, have been referred to. In connexion with 
them, it may be mentioned, that the bread-roller, which 
must have been in frequent requisition on the kitchen table 
of Cam'nethan Mains, rolling out the cakes and scones, in 
haste, for the hungry visitors, is still preserved by a female, 
at Douglas, of the name of Gray, who esteems it as a relic 
from the household of her honoured progenitor at Cam'nethan 
Mains. 

At the period of our narrative, the farm of Kirkhill was 
tenanted by Robert Paterson, who was probably nearly 
related to Paterson of Carbarns. Robert took up arms with 
the party who joined Richard Cameron, and was one of the 
many who fell at the battle of Ayrsmoss, in the year 1680. 
His son, William, partook of his father's spirit and views. 



128 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

His landlord, who resided at Muirhouse, actually ejected 
him from his farm, for no other reason than refusing 
conform to Prelacy ; and seizing him, forced him to become 
a soldier, and had him afterwards removed out of the 
country. When abroad, William managed to effect his 
escape, and to return home ; but in the year 1685, on a 
Sabbath-day, at a fellowship meeting at Garrionhaugh, he 
was unexpectedly seized by a party of soldiers. The devout 
company, disturbed on this occasion, consisted of fourteen 
persons. Ten of them managed to escape, and conceal 
themselves in Garrion-gill ; but William Paterson and three 
others were taken. These thre»e took the abjuration oath, 
and were spared. William Paterson refused to take it, and 
was that afternoon carried to Strathaven castle, where he 
was, on the same day, shot by the hands of Captain Bell. 
The following inscription is on the stone at his grave, in 
Strathaven burial-ground : — 

u Here lies the corpses of William Paterson and John 
Barrie, who were shot to death for their adhering to the 
Word of God, and covenanted work of reformation, anno. 
1685. 

"Here lie two martyrs severally who fell 

By Captain Inglis, and by bloody Bell. 

Posterity shall know they're shot to death, 

As sacrifices unto Popish wrath." 

The original stone, with its inscription, having become 
very decayed, the inhabitants of Strathaven, in the year 
1832, erected the present stone, which contains a copy of 
the original inscription. John Barrie, who was buried in 
the grave with William Paterson, belonged to Avondale. 
He had a pass in his hand, and shewed it to Inglis ; but 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 129 

although he did so, and no accusation could be preferred 
against him, such was the blood-thirsty disposition of 
Inglis, that he maintained that John Barrie was one who 
deserved to die, and instantly shot him. This act of cruelty 
on the part of Inglis will be the less wondered at, when we 
mention that, a short time before this, he cut off the head 
of James White, at Newmilns, and afterwards kicked it 
about, as if it had been a football 

The farm-house at Kirkhill, like that at Cam'nethan 
Mains, was the occasional residence, and refuge, of the 
persecuted. There is a tradition — which the author had 
from the venerable lady who at present occupies Kirkhill, 
which she, in her youth, often heard from a very aged per- 
son, who resided at the old church-yard — to the following 
effect. One evening a party of troopers, who had been in 
quest of two men who were reported to haunt at Kirkhill, 
unexpectedly surrounded the house. The men, unfortu- 
nately, were there. The family had just finished their 
homely supper on sowens, when thus surprised. Only a 
few minutes were allowed to the two men, whose doom had 
just been pronounced, to prepare for death. That humble 
hearth became the scene of one of the most revolting deeds 
in the annals of the persecuting period. The soldiers ripped 
them up with their swords ; and those who were witnesses 
of this inhuman deed were in the habit of observing, that 
their feelings were overpowered by the circumstance of the 
food, which the unhappy men had just eaten, being poured 
out on the hearth- stone. 

The persons who suffered, in the parish of Cambusnethan, 

i 



130 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

in one form or other, were really so numerous, that, were 
their cases fully detailed, this volume would greatly exceed 
the limits which the writer of it has prescribed to himself. 
It will, on this account, be necessary to study a measure of 
conciseness. 

In the list of sufferers the name of John Bryce, meal- 
maker in Cambusnethan, occurs. He had been at Pentland 
— he refused to take the bond never again to take up arms 
against the King — and, for his refusal, was banished to 
Virginia, and not to return on pain of death. 

Alexander Smith, who was alleged to have been at 
Bothwell, was carried prisoner to Edinburgh. He escaped 
from prison, disguised in women's clothes. He was again 
apprehended, but rescued at Inchbelly-bridge, near Glasgow. 
He was a third time captured, and sent to Dunnottar castle, 
from which stronghold, however, he managed to escape ; 
but on being a fourth time apprehended, he was strictly 
guarded, and continued a prisoner till the Revolution. 

James Pettigrew had been at Bothwell Bridge . As a 
penalty, he had to endure having a party of soldiers quar- 
tered upon him, and only got rid of them, after a time, by 
giving them three hundred merks. In the year 1681, he 
was apprehended and carried to Edinburgh, where he was 
kept a prisoner for three months, and was then liberated, on 
condition of paying five hundred merks to Gavin Muirhead 
of Lauchop. Two years afterwards he was oppressed by 
the laird of Meldrum, who forced him to buy back his own 
horses, at an expense of two hundred merks. 



PARISH OF COIBUSNETHAN. 131 

Robert Russel was one day met by a party of soldiers. 
They had no accusation to bring against him, but because 
he refused to answer the questions put to him, and declined 
to own the King's authority, he was carried to Edinburgh, 
and there lay in irons for two years* 

James Forrest in Oldyards and his son, with his nephew, 
Robert Gourlay, were apprehended. The only crime of 
which they could be accused was, their having given food 
and shelter to the persecuted. In the eyes of their perse- 
cutors, this of itself was so heinous a crime, as to be deemed 
a sufficient warrant for spoiling them of their goods, and, 
after a period of imprisonment, banishing them to West 
Flanders. They effected their escape, and returned home 
towards the close of the year 1683. James and his son 
were again apprehended, and banished to Jamaica ; and 
Margaret, daughter of James, was, after a long imprison- 
ment, banished to Jersey. 

Gavin Muirhead, for alleged rebellion and reset of rebels, 
was banished to the plantations in the West Indies. 

Gavin Lawrie in Redmyre was imprisoned, because he 
had furnished refreshments in his house, to persons return- 
ing from the conventicle at Black-loch. 

John Miller in Watersaugh — who built Cambusnethan 
church, in the year 1650 — was accused of having had cor- 
respondence with rebels. This was the whole of his offence ; 
yet, after an imprisonment of nine months, he was liberated 
only on granting bond and caution for the exorbitant sum 



132 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

of five thousand pounds sterling, to appear within sixty 
days after citation, to answer any charge then to be pre- 
ferred against him. 

David Russel, Archibald Prentice, John Cleland, and 
John Smith, residing in Stane, were imprisoned for three 
months, and each fined to the amount of one hundred pounds, 
because they had not raised the hue and cry against a party 
who had been at the conventicle at Black-loch, and who, 
on returning homeward, had passed their houses. David 
Russel was the father of George Russel, who, on the 18th 
July, 1699, was ordained an elder in Cambusnethan . George 
Russel, the son, as we have seen in our narrative of the 
origin of the Associate congregation at Daviesdykes, was 
one of the seven elders who protested against the admission 
of Mr. Craig. There can be no doubt that Archibald Pren- 
tice, the second name on the list of sufferers at Stane, was 
the father of James Prentice, another of the seven elders, 
and one of the founders of the Associate congregation. 

Robert Steel, portioner in Stane, was, in his absence, 
indicted for having been at Bothwell. He was adjudged to 
have been guilty of treason, was fdrfeited, and doomed to 
be executed whenever found. 

William Dalziel, in West Redmyre, on refusing to take 
"the test," was imprisoned at Glasgow; and, owing to the 
hardships which he there endured, in the course of nine 
months imprisonment, died. No entreaty could prevail to 
allow the dying man to be removed from prison ; and, even 
after his death, it was with very great difficulty that relatives 



PARISH OF cambusnethan. 133 

were permitted to remove his body, that it might be interred 
in the graves of his forefathers, in the old churchward. 

George Russel, in West Redmyre had been informed 
against, for having received baptism for a child at a con- 
venticle. No evidence was adduced beyond report, yet on 
the bare report he was imprisoned at Lanark, and after- 
wards in Edinburgh. "With the view of getting rid of him, 
he was gifted to be a recruit, and sent abroad into the army, 
where he died. 

John Marshall, tenant on the Coltness estate, refused 
i( the test," and, in consequence, had two cows taken from 
him, together with his whole crop. 

John Torrance, for a similar reason, had a cow, six sheep, 
his whole crop, and every thing portable in his house, taken 
from him. 

In the list of those against whom a decree of fugitation 
was executed, the following names occur : — Robert Steel, 
in Stane ; John Steuart, in Goukthraple ; Andrew Cleland, 
in Fimmington ; Jaines Brownlie, servant to the gudewife 
of Garrionhaugh ; James Alexander, gardener at Coltness ; 
James Baird, in Kirkhill ; William Brown, in Towartbush ; 
William Paterson, in Murray s ; and William Purdie, John 
Forrest, Gavin Brown, Waiter Pitcairn, James Watt, Gavin 
Paterson, all in Overtown. 

Thomas Paton, a worthy man, resided at the old kirk of 
Cambusnethan. He was implicated in the rising which led 



134 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE * 

to the battle of Bothwell Bridge ; and on this account was, 
with many others, u forfeited in life, lands, and goods," — so 
runs the wording of the proclamation against him. He 
fled. He was tried in absence — condemned — and ordered 
to be executed as a traitor whenever found. This was in 
the year 1681. The year 1688 brought the Stuart dynasty 
to a termination, and introduced the Revolution. The 
sentence of forfeiture of life, lands, and liberty, which had 
passed on so many godly persons in Clydesdale and else- 
where, and driven them into exile, was then rescinded. 
Those who survived the Revolution were permitted to return 
home, and enjoy their own again. On carefully looking 
over a very long list of hundreds of names of the forfeited 
aud exiled, who availed themselves of the happy restoration 
to their homes and families, the following are met with : — 
Robert Steel, portioner in Stane ; Thomas Steuart of Colt- 
ness ; David Steuart of Coltness ; and Thomas Paton, at 
the old kirk of Cambusnethan. 

The troubles and sufferings to which the Steuarts of 
Coltness — as a family — were subjected, during the perse- 
cuting period, if fully detailed, wonld of themselves form a 
deeply interesting episode. As a family, they have been 
proverbial for high-toned piety and patriotism. James 
Steuart, the founder of the Coltness branch of the Steuart 
family, was a man of high character and extensive influence. 
In addition to what we have already said of him, when 
sketching the history of the Coltness Steuarts, we mention 
that he was provost of Edinburgh from the year 1648 till 
1660. He was a staunch adherent to the royalist cause, 
and as staunch an adherent to the principles of the cove- 






PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 135 

n ants. He took a very active part in the restoration of 
Charles II. : and, as an illustration of the extravagance to 
which even good men then went, in the exuberance of their 
loyalty to the Stuarts, it may be mentioned, that, under 
the sanction of Sir James Steuart, then provost of Edin- 
burgh, after sermon, on a day of thanksgiving — 19th June, 
1660 — " many came to the cross, where a table was covered 
with sweetmeats — the table ran with wine — three hundred 
dozen of wine glasses were broken — there were fire- works 
on the castle-hill in the evening, with the effigies of Crom- 
well and the devil pursuing him, till at length by gunpowder 
Cromwell was blown into the air." In less than a month 
after this, an order came from London to seize and imprison 
certain parties, the head and front of whose offending was, 
they were Covenanters* The first person on the list was Sir 
James Steuart, provost of Edinburgh. He was seized and 
imprisoned accordingly, and for years continued either in 
prison or under bond. He had been present at the sermon 
preached by his chaplain, Mr. Hugh M'Kail, to which 
reference has already been made, and because certain state- 
ments were reported to have been made by the preacher, 
offensive to the heads of the government, Sir James and his 
son, Walter, were brought into great trouble. Walter was 
seized and imprisoned. Sir James soon after suffered in the 
same mode; and after long imprisonment in Edinburgh, 
was, in the year 1676, removed to the tolbooth of Dundee, 
and after an imprisonment there of two years, obtained 
liberation. In the year 1679, he was again committed a 
prisoner to Edinburgh castle. He had to pay two fines — 
the one amounting to £500, and the other to £1,000. In 
consideration of his age and infirmity, he was liberated, and 



136 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

allowed to return to Coltness, under bond of ten thousand 
merks to appear when called. He died two years after- 
wards. 

Walter Steuart, the second son of Sir James, was accused 
of emitting speeches, tending towards sedition, in a smith} 7 , 
while public matters were being discussed. From the 
minutes of Privy Council, under date 11th November, 1662, 
he appears to have denied having uttered the speeches 
alleged to have been spoken by him. Witnesses having 
been examined, the Council found that some things had 
been uttered tending to sedition, and ordered him to be 
imprisoned till further orders regarding him were given. 
Under his imprisonment his health gave way, and death 
removed him from this stage of suffering, even before young 
M l Kail, his tutor,— on whose account Steuart was brought 
into trouble, — had been called upon to seal his testimony 
with his blood. The body of young Steuart sleeps with 
kindred dust, within the precincts of our old church-yard, 
and he must, for the reasons now recorded, be enrolled 
among the martyrs whose graves are within the same se- 
questered spot. 

The provost of Edinburgh had several sons. We have 
already heard of Walter, and shall yet hear of Thomas and 
David. One of his sons — James by name — was educated 
for the bar, and became an eminent lawyer and pleader. 
At that time a notable paper appeared, entitled " Scotland's 
Grievances ;" and there being good reasons for concluding 
that it was the production of James Steuart's pen, an order 
came down from London to seize and confine him, not 









PAKISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 137 

allowing him to hold converse with his friends, by word or 
writing, and that all his papers and cabinets should be seized 
and sealed. He got notice of all this, and for several years 
managed to conceal himself. When the Earl of Argyll 
was brought into trouble, no one was deemed so well quali- 
fied to prepare his defences as young Steuart. The plead- 
ings were detected to be in Steuart's hand- writing. This 
was deemed an offence so grave that he was put to the horn, 
and all his effects were forfeited. He fled to Holland, and 
continued there till the toleration, when he returned home. 
After the Kevolution he was promoted to the office of Lord 
Advocate for Scotland — an office which he filled with great 
ability during the reign of William III. It is not generally 
known, but deserves to be mentioned, that the volume en- 
titled " Naphtali ; or, The Hind Let Loose," was the joint 
production of the Lord Advocate and the Kev. Mr. Stirling 
of Paisley. Mr. Steuart died in the year 1713. 

Thomas — the first baronet in the Coltness family — was 
brought to great trouble, suffering, and loss, in consequence 
of being accused of having aided and abetted the rebels on 
the occasion of Bothwell Bridge. He is described as having 
been <4 a man of eminently holy life, shining conversation, 
and many other excellent endowments.' 1 In the criminal 
charges preferred against him, there was no legal proof of 
his having directly supplied food for the persecuted party, 
on occasion of the battle at Bothwell ; but that food had 
been obtained at Coltness house, was sufficiently clear. 
The probability is, that Thomas made up his mind to be 
entirely passive in the matter. The friends of the Cove- 
nanters, anticipating a battle at Bothwell, made preparations 



138 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

for it ; and, aware that something in addition to powder 
and ball was requisite, concluded that they were likely to 
find it in the larder of Coltness house. They were well 
aware that its whole contents were at their command, and 
that the safest policy on their part was not to implicate Mr. 
Steuart, but carry off whatever was suitable in the exigency. 
When the case of Mr. Steuart came to trial, three things 
were charged agaiust him — first, that he had furnished meat 
and drink to the rebels at Bothwell ; second, that he had 
resetted men going to and fro, on occasion of the battle ; 
and third, that he had taken guilt to himself, and fled from 
justice. When the proof was led, one James Cooper de- 
poned, that he saw Coltness standing at his own gate, and 
send off a sledge with bread, meat, two cold turkeys, and 
drink ; and that he took back into his service his butler and 
gardener, though they had been at Bothwell. Another 
person deponed, that he saw the servants carry the food to 
Hamilton moor. James Black deponed, that he sold six 
gallons of ale, carried it to Hamilton moor, and got payment 
from Coltness' servants. It was farther adduced in evidence 
against Thomas Steuart, that he refused or declined to 
put his tenants out of their farms or houses, though they 
had been at field preachings, and had also refused to take 
any part in apprehending them. On these charges he was 
condemned ; and by an Act of Parliament passed in 1685, 
his lands were declared forfeited, and for ever annexed to 
the crown, not to be dissolved from it but by Parliament. 
Mr. Steuart fled to Holland, and remained there tHl the 
Revolution. During the year 1686, the crown gave the 
baronies of Coltness, Goodtrees, and North Berwick, to the 
Earl of Arran, in acknowledgement of his services against 



PABISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 139 

the Earl of Argyll. After the Eevolution Mr. Steuart had 
his estates restored to him ; and, as a compensation for the 
losses which he had sustained during the period of his for- 
feiture, he had £200. annually allowed him, out of the 
revenues of the Archbishopric of Glasgow. 

One of the family reminiscences of the Steuarts, during 
the persecuting period, the author obtained from a gentleman 
who had for many years been on terms of intimacy with the 
late Sir James Steuart. Claverhouse and a body of his 
dragoons were, at least, one night at Coltness house. Their 
company — as may well be conceived — was anything but 
welcome or agreeable. Several of the servants, and the 
. greater number of the tenantry on the Coltness estate, had 
identified themselves with the party who had been driven to 
take up arms in self defence. On the occasion of this visit 
by Claverhouse, they deemed it prudent to conceal them- 
selves. The coal pits, entering from the Temple- gill, were 
their hiding-places. They knew that Sir James would not 
betray them, but, on the other hand, do all in his power to 
conceal and protect them. Indeed, so great was his anxiety 
for their safety and comfort in their hiding-places, that it 
almost divulged to Claverhouse the secret which it was 
necessary to hide from him. The company at Coltness had 
just sat down to supper when Sir James said to the servants 
who were in waiting, "Noo, lads, see an' dinna forget to 
gi'e the nowt their supper the nicht." The servants gave 
their master such a nod, and expressive look, as to satisfy 
him that they understood the secret meaning of his instruc- 
tions. As they were removing the cloth he said "Noo, see 
and dinna forget the nowt" As the evening advanced, he 



140 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

took occasion to ask them " Are ye sure the nowt have 
gotten their supper?' 7 Claverhouse did not assert that 
his host was offering him an insult, but took occasion to 
remark, that "it certainly was what he had not expected, 
that Sir James should seem to be more concerned for the 
comfort of his ■ nowt,' than the entertainment of his Majes- 
ty's servants.'" 

David Steuart of Coltness — to whom M'Kail gave his 
Bible when on the scaffold — had his own share of the an- 
noyances and sufferings of these times. In the year 1685, 
he was indicted for treason. On his trial, the only things 
which he admitted, to which his prosecutors could attach 
guilt, were, " that he had gone over to Holland — conversed 
there with the late Earl of Argyll — that he had returned 
with him to the Highlands — continued with the rebels till 
taken — and that he had a sword." On these grounds the 
Lords of Justiciary sentenced him to be executed, at the 
cross of Edinburgh, on the Wednesday thereafter, 22d July, 
1685. On the Monday — the 20th of the month — the Lords 
of Council ordered a reprieve till the 3d of September. On 
the 25th August, the King continued the reprieve till he 
should signify his pleasure to the contrary, but that David 
Steuart should be kept a close prisoner. Matters were now 
hastening to a crisis in Scotland. The Stuart dynasty had 
nearly run its course. Its cup of iniquity had filled very 
rapidly. There are limits to endurance, and these limits 
had now been nearly reached. The days of persecution and 
blood came to an end. The imprisoned and exiled members 
of the Coltness family were set free, or were allowed to 
return home. The ^Revolution removed the last of the 



PAEISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 141 

Stuarts from the throne, and introduced happier times. 
The survivors of this troublous period returned to enjoy their 
own again in peace. 

The share which the Coltness family had in the troubles 
and sufferings of the twenty-seven years of persecution, has 
justified us in giving to their case the prominency, and 
minuteness of detail, which we have done. As a family, 
they now exist only on the page of history ; but, as it is 
the business of history to deal faithfully with the past, and 
especially to chronicle the deeds of the patriotic and the 
virtuous, we cordially add our stone to the cairn which 
covers the sepulchres of a house which struggled so long, so 
consistently, and so successfully, for the liberties which we 
continue to enjoy. 

The name of Arthur Inglis has been mentioned oftener 
than any other in our parish, in connexion with the times 
of suffering and martyrdom. This is accounted for by the 
circumstance, that his grave is the only one in our old 
church-yard which has been honoured with a memorial 
stone. We question whether several others buried there have 
not been equally deserving of this honour, and a few, more 
so. They testified for the principles of a covenanted refor- 
mation, and maintained this testimony, with honour, in a 
day of trial ; whereas there is no direct evidence that Arthur 
Inglis had given any such open testimony, or that he had 
identified himself with the oppressed and persecuted party 
in the land. The only particulars which have been gathered 
concerning him are, that he was the tenant on the farm of 
Netherton. On the 23d June, 1679, the morning after the 



142 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

battle of Bothwell Bridge, he was herding his cows at 
Stockleton-dyke. He was a devout man, and had hi3 Bible 
in his hand while watching his cows. At that period a 
road ran along the vale, near the old church, onward past 
Cam'nethan house, and towards the Law of Carluke. Two 
or three dragoons were that morning passing along this 
road, and observing a man perusing a book, inferred he was 
a whig. One of them discharged his carabine at him, but 
missed him. Arthur Inglis had not been aware of their 
approach, and, startled by the discharge of the gun, his 
Bible was thrown up into the air. He looked round to 
ascertain from what quarter the shot had come, when the 
dragoon who had fired, irritated that his shot had not taken 
effect, galloped up, and with one stroke of his sword on the 
head of the good man, laid him dead on the spot. Whether 
any stone was put up at his grave when he was buried, is 
uncertain. The old stone, with its quaint inscription, was 
put up in the year 1733. The inscription is as follows : — 

" Here Lyes 
Arthur Inglis in Nethertown 
Who Was shot at Stockelton 
Dyke by bloody Graham of 
Claversehouse, July, 1679. 
for his adherence to the word 
Of God, and Scotland's Cov 
enanted work of Reformation. 
Rev: xii. 11. .v_^o 
Erected in the year 1733." 

This stone, then, was erected 120 years ago. In the 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 143 

above inscription, however, the date of Arthur Inglis' death 
is not sufficiently accurate. It ought to have been June, 
not July. On the back of the stone are the following 
lines : — 

" Memento Mori. V 

When I did live such was the day 

Forsaking sin made men a prey 

Unto the rage and tyranny 

Of that throne of iniquity 

Who robbed Christ, and killed his saints 

And brake and burnt his covenants. 

I at that time this honour got 

To die for Christ upon the spot." 

On passing down the road leading to West Carbarns, 
and immediately below Kanald's orchard, five venerable oak 
trees, toward the left, will arrest attention. They remain 
to mark the line of Stockelton-dyke. The late Mr. Paterson 
of Watersaugh, factor on the Wish aw estate, mentioned to 
the author that the late Lord Belhaven one day expressed 
a wish that the trees should be cut down. Mr. Paterson 
took occasion to say, " My Lord, if I had a voice in the mat- 
ter, I would decidedly say let these trees grow" " Why?" 
" Because, my Lord, there is a martyr's blood under one of 
them. It was beneath the shade of one of those trees 
Arthur Inglis was sitting when he was murdered." "Then, 
Mr. Paterson, they shall remain untouched." They still 
remain untouched, and we trust shall remain untouched ; 
and, if instructions should at any distant day again go out 
to cut them down, some friendly voice, certainly, will again 
interpose, and say — 

" Woodman, spare that tree." 



144 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

A few years ago one of those trees was 3truck by light- 
ning, and very much injured. In adverting to this circum- 
stance, it is but due to mention that Lord Belhaven, on 
ascertaining it, gave orders that the tree be bound with 
iron, if possible thereby to prevent its more rapid decay. 
Let those trees grow ; and when they fall, let it only be by 
the hand of age. Even then, perhaps, there will be some 
in Cambusnethan parish cherishing so much respect for 
them, and the spot where they grew, and for the cause for 
which Arthur Inglis suffered, as to be constrained to plant 
young saplings in their stead. They are memorial trees ; 
and as, in the year 1836, a new monument was reared at 
the grave of Arthur Inglis, so, when it also has decayed, a 
few, surely, will not grudge the cost of rearing a fresh 
memorial of the spot where the dust of one of the sufferers, 
in persecuting times, sleeps safely till the resurrection. 

Having given these brief notices of individuals connected 
with the parish of Cambusnethan who suffered in persecu- 
ting times, several of them unto death, and whose dust 
mingles with "kindred dust" in our old church-yard, it is 
hoped that this secluded enclosure will, in public estimation, 
be invested with a higher and more sacred interest than it 
has hitherto been. It is the burial-place of the forefathers 
of many who have listened to these " Historical Sketches." 
It is a spot over which the foot should pass reverently, 
because many of its " narrow houses" are occupied by the 
bones of our best patriots — men who, on the morning of 
the resurrection, shall have this testified to them, that u they 
were faithful unto the death." This allusion to our old 
church-yard cannot be dismissed without the quotation of a 



PARISH OP CAMBUSNETHAN. 145 

few stanzas from Gray's " Elegy," selected for their ap- 
propriateness : — 

" Beneath these rugged elms, that yew-tree's shade, 
Where heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap, 
Each in his narrow cell for ever laid, 
The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. 

Let not ambition mock their useful toil, 
Their homely joys, and destiny obscure; 
Nor grandeur hear, with a disdainful smile, 
The short and simple annals of the poor. 

Perhaps, in this neglected spot is laid 
Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire ; 
Hands, that the rod of empire might have sway'd, 
Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre. 

Some village Hampden, that, with dauntless breast, 
The little tyrant of his fields withstood; 
Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest; 
Some Cromwell, guiltless of his country's blood. 

Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife, 
Their sober wishes never learned to stray: 
Along the cool sequester'd vale of life 
They kept the noiseless tenor of their way. 

Yet even these bones, from insult to protect, 
Some frail memorial still erected nigh, 
With uncouth rhymes and shapless sculpture deck'd, 
Implores the passing tribute of a sigh." 

The name of Donald Cargill occupies a very conspicuous 
place on the roll of our Scottish martyrology. He was at 
one time minister of the Barony parish of Glasgow. He 
took a very early and decided stand against the Prelatic 
party in Scotland, and, for having done so, was banished 

K 



146 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

beyond the Tay. He became a leader among what may be 
regarded as having been the extreme party of the Covenan- 
ters. He was strongly opposed to the " Indulgence," and 
to those who countenanced the indulged ministers. He had 
a principal hand in drawing up the "Sanquhar Declaration." 
His most notable act was his preaching at Torwood, near 
Stirling, when, after sermon, he solemnly pronounced the 
higher sentence of excommunication against Charles II., 
the Duke of York, the Dukes of Monmouth, Lauderdale, 
Rothes, and others. Five thousand merks were offered as a 
reward for his apprehension. His last sermon was preached 
at Dunsyre-common, in June, 1681. He lodged that night 
at Covington mill, and during the night was apprehended 
and brought to Lanark Jail. Next day he was brought 
through Cambusnethan to Glasgow. From Glasgow he 
was carried to Edinburgh, and after trial before the Council 
he was condemned, and on the 27th July, 1681, he was 
hanged, beheaded, and his head placed upon the Nether- 
Bow. 

Our reason for introducing Donald Cargill is, that he had 
rather an interesting connection with the parish of Cambus- 
nethan, frequently visited it, preached in it, and found 
refuge in it. Darngavel, and Benty-rig near Stanebent, are 
two of the places in Cambusnethan which Mr. Cargill fre- 
quently visited, and at which he preached. It was during 
his last visit to Darngavel that he had an interview with 
the leaders of a sect which had been originated at Borrow- 
stounness, who, after the name of their principal leader, were 
called " Gibbites." They were then on their way westward, 
but got no farther than Strathaven. Under the guise of 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 147 

great devotion and earnestness, there was a large measure 
of fanaticism and blasphemy. The leniency which the 
government shewed them, led many to suspect that the 
Jesuits of the day secretly encouraged them. One of Mr. 
Cargill's last services was at Benty-rig, as he does not 
appear, between the time of his last visit to it and his ap- 
prehension, to have preached anywhere except at Auchin- 
gilloch — a lonely ravine among the uplands of Lanarkshire, 
several miles from any human dwelling, and near the sources 
of the Logan and the Kype, two of the tributaries of the 
Clyde. Reference has already been repeatedly made to 
John Miller, in Watersaugh, who built Cambusnethan kirk 
in the year 1650, and who suffered a long imprisonment for 
alleged correspondence with rebels. Mrs. Miller, the worthy 
spouse of the occupant of Watersaugh, was the sister of 
Donald Cargill, and Watersaugh thus became one of the 
haunts and hiding-places of Cargill. The late Mr. James 
Paterson, who long tenanted Watersaugh, and died there, 
was thoroughly conversant with the antiquities of the parish, 
and to him the author was much indebted for the information 
which he obtained regarding Mr. Cargill, and other incidents 
recorded in this volume. On one occasion, when Mr. Car- 
gill was under hiding in Watersaugh, his enemies got notice, 
of it, and were in the court, before the door, before any of 
the inmates were aware of the danger in which the servant 
of God was thus placed. From the under-flat of this old 
mansion there is a door-way leading to the river, which 
flows past it at the distance of only a few yards. From 
this door- way Cargill managed to escape; and, dashing 
through the river, found refuge in the adjoining woods, till 
his pursuers, finding they had lost their prey, had with- 



148 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

drawn. The old house of Watersaugh has many interesting 
historical and local associations, but, on passing it, the 
association ever uppermost in the writer's mind is, that 
under its hospitable roof Cargili often found shelter and 
repose, and that from the low door- way, facing the river, he 
escaped on the occasion referred to. 

Reference has already been made to Darmeid, one of the 
solitudes on the eastern moors of Cambusnethan, in which 
the persecuted often met for worship, and in which many of 
the measures which were adopted by them were planned. 
One of these measures is known in the history of the period 
as the " Sanquhar Declaration,' 7 from its having been first 
published at the cross of Sanquhar, in Dumfriesshire. Those 
who framed this "Declaration" had made up their minds 
to "disown Charles Stuart, who had been reigning — or 
rather tyrannizing — on the throne of Britain these years 
byegone, as having any right, title to, or interest in the 
said crown of Scotland for government, as forfeited several 
years since, by his perjury, and breach of covenant both to 
God and his kirk, and usurpation of his crown and royal 
prerogatives therein — and also disown, and by this resent, 
the reception of the Duke of York, that professed papist — 
and protest against his succeeding to the crown." There 
are good reasons for concluding that this "Declaration" 
was, after a season of fasting and prayer, prepared at Dar- 
meid, in the summer of 1680, by Cargili and Cameron, and 
those who homolgated their views in renouncing allegiance 
to the House of Stuart. 

There is another name which must be mentioned in 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 149 

connexion with Darmeid and the parish of Cambusnethan, 
that of James Ren wick, the last of the Scottish martyrs. 
When prosecuting his studies for the ministry at the univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, and before completing his nineteenth 
year, he came to decided views on the great religious ques- 
tions of the day. He joined the party who condemned the 
" Indulgence." He was present at the execution of Mr. 
Donald Cargill, and from that day determined to cast in his 
lot with the party with whom Cargill had associated. The 
" Declaration " published by the Covenanters at the cross 
of Lanark, in January, 1682, was read by Mr. Ren wick. 
After this his friends, who were greatly edified by his piety 
and gifts, sent him to complete his studies at Groningen, 
where, in April, 1683, he was, by imposition of hands, 
ordained to the office of the ministry. In September, 1683, 
he returned to Scotland, and was at once chosen by the 
44 Society people" to be their minister. His first sermon to 
them was delivered in Darmeid. In the Diary of Serjeant 
Nisbet there is the following record of the discourse delivered 
on this occasion : — "I went sixteen miles to hear Mr. James 
Renwick, a faithful servant of Jesus Christ, who was a 
young man endued with great piety, prudence, and modera- 
tion. The meeting was held in a large desolate muir. He 
appeared to be accompanied with much of his Master's 
presence. He preached from Mark xii. 34. In the fore- 
noon he gave us several marks of the hypocrite, with per- 
tinent applications. In the afternoon he gave us several 
marks of the saved believer, and made a large, full, and 
free offer of Christ to all sorts of perishing sinners. His 
method was clear, plain, and well digested, suiting the 
substance and simplicity of the gospel. This was a great 



150 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

day of the Son of Man, to many poor exercised souls, who 
this day got a Pisgah view of the Prince of Life." 

After the death of Cameron and Cargill, Mr. Renwick 
was the only minister who ventured to preach in the fields. 
He must have had a partiality for Darmeid, as in the min- 
utes of the Privy Council, under date 25th May, 1685, 
Darmeid is particularly mentioned as the resort " of persons 
to hear that supposed preacher, — a disturber of the peace 
and of all honest men, — Mr. James Renwick." His lot fell 
in peculiarly trying times. His constitution was not of the 
most vigorous class, and was enfeebled by excessive travel- 
ling on foot, to minister to the persecuted and scattered flock, 
night wanderings, unseasonable sleep, and frequent preach- 
ing. The sands of his glass soon ran out. He was apprehen- 
ded, and executed at Edinburgh in February, 1688. His 
execution probably fixed the deepest stamp of infamy on the 
government, as it seems to have been the means of arresting 
the current of blood, which, for twenty-eight years, had 
flowed on the streets, and upland moors of Scotland. 

As Darmeid was associated with the ministry of the 
youthful Renwick, the last of the martyrs, Grahame, in his 
poem on the " Sabbath," has the following touching allusion 
to it : — 

' ' In solitudes like these 
Thy persecuted children, Scotia, foiled 
A tyrant, and a bigot's bloody laws. 

There leaning on his spear 

The lyart vet'ran heard the word of God 

By Cameron thundered, or by Renwick poured 

In gentle stream. 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 151 

t 

"O'er their souls 
His accents soothing came — as to her young 
The heath-fowl's plumes, when at the close of eve 
She gathers in, mournful, her brood dispersed 
By murderous sport, and o'er the remnant spreads 
Fondly her wings ; close nestling 'neath her breast 
They, cherished, cower amid the purple blooms." 

We must now conclude, and do so expressing a strong 
conviction that the history of the covenanting period has 
yet to be written, and that a faithful portrait of the Cove- 
nanters has yet to be drawn. It is greatly to be regretted 
that the principal writers of last century — historians and 
poets — had either little sympathy for them, or a positive 
dislike. The accumulated genius which was concentrated 
in David Hume, Adam Smith, Hugh Blair, Lord Kaimes, 
Principal Robertson, Dugald Stewart, Allan Ramsay, Rob- 
ert Ferguson, and Robert Burns, can scarcely be expected 
to develope itself again, during any one half-century of 
Scottish history ; and yet, none of these gifted writers 
expressed a syllable of sympathy for the Covenanters or 
their struggles. There is one writer on our list, a native of 
one of the principal of the covenanting districts, and whose 
life was spent among them, who possessed the talent requisite 
for the task, and might have so employed it, but for the 
unhappy direction given to his religious feelings, by the 
discipline which the church exercised towards him, because 
of his earlier immoralities — Robert Burns. The heart that 
could pour out its patriotism on the field of Bannockburn, 
in the inspiring lines beginning thus — 

" Scots wha ha'e wi' Wallace bled," 

was certainly competent to have chaunted the sufferings, 



152 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

and struggles for liberty, of the men whose blood, we think, 
has served to give a deeper tinge to the heather blossoms of 
his own Ayrshire moors. And had Burns sung " but one 
paean over Drumclog, or a lament for Bothwell, or an elegy 
over Cameron's grave," his genius and memory would have 
been honoured by posterity more highly than they have 
been. It is generally understood that when Sir Walter 
Scott entertained serious thoughts of becoming a novelist, 
the story of the Covenanters was intended to have been his 
earliest theme. It has been fortunate for his literary fame 
that that intention was not executed. " Old Mortality" 
has evoked more criticism and censure than any other of the 
u Waverley Xovels." Thousands know nothing of the 
Covenanters but from this novel; and, biased by the 
graphic sketches of Sir Walter, look upon them as having 
been a body of raving enthusiasts, whom the government 
sought to suppress, by unnecessary and excessive cruelty. 
" Old Mortality" is not a history of the covenanting period, 
but is in many respects a carricature of it. A carricature 
has, doubtless, many salient points about it, but its primary 
tendency is to furnish amusement. Roars of laughter are 
still occasioned by the drollery — the mingled simplicity and 
slyness — of "Cuddy Headrig" and his " mither ;* while 
disgust is excited by the words put into the mouths of those 
reputed to be the preachers among the Covenanters. But 
u 01d Mortality" is not the work that must be carefully 
perused, if a full and fair estimate is to be formed of the 
earnestness, patriotism, piety, and literature of the Cove- 
nanters. That they had their failings, that they held 
principles and carried them out in a manner which we 
cannot approve, we frankly avow ; but we are not blind to 



PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 153 

the excellencies of their character, nor insensible to the 
obligations under which they have laid us, by their struggle 
for those liberties which were denied them, and which have 
long been secured for our country. When men are battling 
for great principles ; when the conflict is a protracted one, 
and when the principal actors in it are driven from their 
homes into hiding-places or exile, and many of them are 
being hunted to death, — they have little leisure for calm 
and cool reflection ; and, under the excitement of their 
circumstances, will say and do many things which they 
themselves, as well as posterity, may regret. And while it 
would be uncharitable not to make this allowance, it would 
be uncandid, not to place in the broad day-light of historic 
truth, the treachery and tyranny of the men in power, to- 
wards the very individuals but for whom they never would 
have been honoured to hold the reins of civil rule ; and 
equally uncandid not to affirm, that, in the righteous pro- 
vidence of God, these types of treachery and tyranny were, 
by the voice of an indignant nation, driven from their places, 
that they might be filled by men who appreciated the prin- 
ciples of constitutional liberty. 

History is far better written a hundred years after the 
incidents of a particular period have taken place, than it 
could have been at the moment of their occurrence. At the 
period when they are taking place, men's minds are excited, 
and apt to misrepresent the real facts of the time. The 
writing of history requires a calm, reflective spirit. Again, 
a considerable period must necessarily elapse before all the 
materials can be collected, out of which to form a well- 
digested history, and give to the principles of a bygone age 



154 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 

their true features. Some men have been better known a 
century after they were buried, and their characters been 
more fairly dealt with, than when they were acting their 
part in the great drama of life. u By their fruits ye shall 
know them." James I. and his sons, who terminated the 
Stuart dynasty, have had their eulogists ; but the atmo- 
sphere of their court was not the most salubrious, and has 
been all the better for the ventilation which has been given 
it. Dr. Bainolds and his three brethren — Puritans as they 
were — standing at the bottom of the Council table of 
Hampton Court, are an infinitely finer group than James 
and his bishops seated at the top of it. The meekness of 
young M'Kaii, when under the torture of the boot in Edin- 
burgh, will be looked at and admired, in preference to the 
cruelty of Lauderdale, which could sit unmoved in the 
presence of these sufferings. Harvey's picture of "The 
Covenanter's Baptism " in the mountain dell, awakens in a 
truly devout mind, far higher and holier feelings than when 
gazing on a picture of cathedral worship ; and as Cromwell, 
Hampden, and Pym, are now adjudged to have been the 
pioneers of the Revolution, we must apply to the men of the 
covenanting times the lines of Cowper — 

" They of old, whose tempered blades 
Dispersed the shackles of usurped control, 
And hewed them link from link— then Britain's sons 
Were sons indeed." 

The late Dr. M'Crie, who came forward to vindicate the 
Covenanters from the attack which Sir Walter Scott had 
made on them, has thus expressed himself : — " What 
although, in discharging their arduous duty, in times of 



PAKISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN. 155 

unexampled trial, they were guilty of partial irregularities, 
and some of them of individual crimes ? What although the 
language in which they expressed themselves was homely, 
and appears to our ears coarse, and unsuitable to the sub- 
ject ? What although they gave a greater prominence to 
some points, and laid a greater stress on some articles, than 
we may now think they were entitled to ? What although 
they discovered an immoderate heat and irritation of spirit, 
considering the barbarous and brutal manner in which they 
had long been treated? What although they fell into 
parties, and quarrelled among themselves, when we consider 
the crafty and insidious measures employed by their adver- 
saries to disunite them — and when we can perceive them 
actuated by honesty and principle, even in the greatest 
errors into which they were betrayed ? These, granting 
them to be all true, may form a proper subject for sober 
statement, and for cool animadversion, but never for turning 
the whole of their conduct into ridicule, or treating them 
with scurrilous buffoonery. No enlightened friend to civil 
and religious liberty — no person whose moral and humane 
feelings have not been warped by the most lamentable party 
prejudices, would over think of treating them in this manner. 
They were sufferers — they were suffering unjustly — they 
were demanding only what they were entitled to enjoy — 
they persevered in their demands until they were successful, 
and to their disinterested struggles, and their astonishing 
perseverance, we are indebted, under God, for the blessings 
we enjoy." 

In parting with our subject, and presenting one other 
portrait of the Covenanters and their principles, we apply to 



156 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

them the following sketch from the pencil of Lord Macaulay. 
Speaking of the Puritans of England, he says : — If they 
were unaquainted with the works of philosophers and poets, 
they were deeply read in the oracles of God. If their names 
were not found in the registers of heralds, they were recorded 
in the Book of Life. If their steps were not attended by a 
splendid train of menials, legions of ministering angels had 
charge over them. Their palaces were houses not made 
with hands — their diadems, crowns of glory which should 
never fade away. On the rich and the eloquent, on nobles 
and priests, they looked down with contempt, for they es- 
teemed themselves rich in a more precious treasure, and 
eloquent in a more sublime language — nobles by the right 
of an earlier creation, and priests by the imposition of a 
mightier hand." 



THE END. 



D. JOHNSTON, PRINTER, WISH AW. 



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